وَارْكَعُوْا مَعَ الرّٰكِعِيْنَ 43 (القرآن ٤٣:٢)
Bow down with those who bow down.
Alläh’s Prophetﷺ said:
صَلَاةُ الْجَمَاعَةِ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ صَلَاةِ الْفَذِّ بِسَبْعٍ وَعِشْرِينَ دَرَجَةً. (مسلم ٦٥٠)
Prayer performed in a congregation is twenty-seven degrees more excellent than prayer performed by a single person. (EQ 8611)
The holy Prophetﷺ regularly attended congregational Salähs throughout his life. Even in his sickness, he would not miss a congregational prayer. Only rarely did he miss it.
Similarly, his Companions used to attend congregational Saläh regularly. Only a person with excusable difficulty like physical disability, etc. or a well-known Hypocrite would remain behind a congregational Saläh. It has been reported that Àbdulläh bin Mas’üd said:
لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُنَا وَمَا يَتَخَلَّفُ عَنِ الصَّلَاةِ إِلَّا مُنَافِقٌ قَدْ عُلِمَ نِفَاقُهُ، أَوْ مَرِيضٌ، إِنْ كَانَ الْمَرِيضُ لَيَمْشِي بَيْنَ رَجُلَيْنِ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ الصَّلَاةِ» ، وَقَالَ: «إِنْ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَّمَنَا سُنَنَ الْهُدَى، وَإِنَّ مِنْ سُنَنَ الْهُدَى الصَّلَاةَ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ الَّذِي يُؤَذَّنُ فِيهِ. (مسلم ٦٥٤)
I have seen the time when no one stayed away from Saläh except a Hypocrite, whose hypocrisy was well known, or a sick man. But if a sick man could walk between two persons (i. e. with the help of two persons with one on each side) he would come to prayer. He (further) said: The Messenger of Alläh ﷺ taught us the paths of right guidance among which is prayer in the mosque in which the Saläh-call has been made. (EQ 8621)
Jamä’ah (congregation) is the mutual association present among Imäm and Imäm-followers.
Congregation for Saläh is valid if one person is present along with Imäm for all Salähs except Friday Saläh.
Congregation for Friday Saläh is valid when three men other than Imäm are present.
Congregational Saläh for five daily Salähs for men is an emphasized Tradition for every individual, equivalent in importance to a compulsory act.
Missing a congregational Saläh is not permissible except on account of some excusable difficulty considered valid by the Shariah.
If a man has the habit of missing congregational Salähs without excusable difficulty, he is a sinner.
Congregation is a prerequisite for Friday Saläh and Salähs of the two Ïds.
Hence, Friday Saläh and Ïd Saläh will not be valid without congregation.
Congregation is an emphasized sufficiency Tradition for Taräwïh Saläh and solar eclipse Saläh.
Congregation for Witr Saläh in the month of Ramazän is desirable.
Congregation for Witr Saläh in a month other than Ramazän if held regularly is undesirable.
If some people do this once or twice without making it a regular affair, then there is no harm.
Congregation for Saläh of lunar eclipse is detestable.
Congregation for supererogatory Saläh is detestable if it is held as a result of invitation and prior information.
If some people gather without invitation and prior information and start a congregational supererogatory Saläh without Saläh-call or Saläh-start-call, then it is not detestable.
A second congregation is detestable in the mosque of a locality for which an Imäm and a Saläh-announcer have been appointed and in which the people of the locality have already performed congregational Saläh with Saläh-call and Saläh-start-call.
However, if the previous state has changed like if the Imäm of the second congregation stands in a different place from that of the first Imäm, then it will not be detestable.
Congregation is emphasized Tradition, equivalent in importance to a compulsory act for people in whom the following prerequisites are present:
1. He should be a man. Congregation is not a Tradition for a woman.
2. He should have attained puberty. Congregation is not a Tradition for a child.
3. He should be sane. Congregation is not a Tradition for an insane man.
4. He should be free of excusable difficulties. Congregation is not a Tradition for a man in excusable difficulty.
5. He should be free. Congregation is not a Tradition for a slave.
However, if any of the aforementioned excused persons – woman, child, insane person, person with excusable difficulty and slave – performs Saläh with congregation, their Saläh will be valid and they will be rewarded for attending the congregation.
Attending a congregation is not necessary if any of the following excuses is present:
1. It is raining heavily.
2. It is stone-cold and he fears that if goes out for mosque, he would fall sick or his sickness would aggravate.
3. There is too much mud on the road.
4. It is very dark.
5. Strong wind is blowing at night.
6. The person is sick.
7. He is blind.
8. He is so decrepit as to be unable to walk to mosque.
9. He is attending to a sick person, taking care of his needs.
10. He is finding it hard to suppress urine or excrement.
11. He is imprisoned, no matter whether it is on account of someone else’s right upon him or unjust.
12. He is without one or both legs.
13. He is suffering from a disease which disables him from walking, like paralysis.
14. Meal has been served for him and he is hungry, strongly inclined towards taking it.
15. He is preparing for a journey.
16. He fears loss of his wealth if he engages in congregational Saläh.
17. He fears departure of train or airplane if he engages in congregational Saläh.
For validity of Imäm-duty in a Saläh, it is a prerequisite that the Imäm meets the following prerequisites:
1. Being a man: A woman cannot be Imäm for men.
2. Being a Muslim: A Disbeliever can never be an Imäm.
3. Having attained puberty: A child cannot be an Imäm.
4. Being sane: An insane person cannot be an Imäm.
5. Being capable of reciting the minimum amount of Qur'änic verses necessary for validity of Saläh: If a person who is not as learned becomes the Imäm for knowledgeable people, this Imäm-duty will be invalid.
6. Should not be devoid of a Saläh prerequisite like Purity, covering of the organs to be hidden.
7. Should be free from excusable difficulties like chronic epistaxis, enuresis or flatus discharge.
8. Should have defect-free tongue: He should be able to pronounce the Arabic letters correctly.
If a person mispronounces ‘rä’ as ‘gain’ or ‘läm’, or ‘sïn’ as ‘thä’, he cannot be Imäm when people who can pronounce the letters correctly are Imäm-followers.
The king and his deputy get the first preference for Imäm-duty.
The duly appointed Imäm of the mosque is to be preferred in that mosque specifically.
The owner of the house if eligible for Imäm-duty is to be preferred if the congregation is held in his house.
If none of the above – king, his deputy, duly appointed Imäm and the house-owner – is present among the people gathered, then the person to be given first preference for Imäm-duty is:
· The one who is most knowledgeable about the rulings of Saläh with respect to its validity and invalidity
· Then, the person who has memorized more of the holy Qur'än than others, provided he knows the general rulings of Saläh
· Then, the most pious
· Then, the most aged
If they are equal in all these criteria, then the person whom the gathered people elect for Imäm-duty will lead them in Saläh.
If the people differ in opinion, then the person supported by the majority of gathered people will be their Imäm.
If the people make a person other than the one to be preferred for Imäm-duty as their Imäm, then they have done wrong.
1. A habitual sinner is made the Imäm.
2. A heretic is made the Imäm.
3. A blind man is made the Imäm. However, if he is the most preferable of the gathered people, then it is not detestable.
4. An illiterate person is made Imäm – no matter whether he is from a city or a village – in the presence of a knowledgeable person.
5. A person whom people dislike due to some fault in him is made the Imäm.
6. Making the Saläh longer than the amount established by Tradition is detestable.
7. A congregation consisting only of women is detestable. But if they perform Saläh in congregation, then their female Imäm should stand in the middle of the row, not ahead of the row.
8. Attending of congregational Saläh by women in these times is detestable due to prevalence of evil.
If there is only one person with the Imäm whether a man or a sentient child, he should stand on the right of the Imäm slightly behind him.
If there are two or more men with the Imäm, they should stand behind him.
Similarly, if a man and a child are there, they should stand behind the Imäm.
If men, women, children and eunuchs gather for a congregational Saläh, then men’s row should be in the front, closest to the Imäm, then children’s, then eunuchs’, then women’s.
The most preferable among the gathered men for Imäm-duty should stand in the first row so that one of them may be made Imäm in case an Ablution-invalidator occurs to the current Imäm.
If there is only one child in the gathering, he should stand in men’s row.
If there is more than one child, they will stand in a row behind men’s rows. Men’s row should not be completed with them.
If a person comes for congregational Saläh and finds the Imäm bowing, then if there is space in the row, he should first stand in the row, then say the first Takbïr even if he misses the Saläh-unit. He should not say the first Takbïr nor start bowing while behind the rows.
Following an Imäm is valid if the following prerequisites are met:
1. The Imäm-follower should intend to follow the Imäm at the time of his first Takbïr of Saläh.
2. The Imäm should stand a little ahead of his follower. At least his heels should be ahead of those of the Imäm-followers.
3. The Imäm’s Saläh should not be of a lower category than that of the Imäm-follower. Following the Imäm will not be valid if the Imäm is performing a supererogatory Saläh and the Imäm-follower an obligatory Saläh. Following him will be valid in the reverse case, i.e. if the Imäm is performing an obligatory Saläh and the Imäm-follower a supererogatory one.
4. The Imäm and the Imäm-follower, if both are performing obligatory Saläh, should be offering the obligatory Saläh of the same time. If the Imäm is performing Zuhr and the Imäm-follower Asr, then Imäm-following will be invalid. In the reverse case also, Imäm-following will be invalid.
5. There should not be a row of women between the Imäm and male Imäm-followers.
6. There should not be a river wide enough for a boat to sail in it between the Imäm and his followers.
7. There should not be a road wide enough for a car or cart to pass through it between Imäm and his followers.
8. There should not be a barrier between the Imäm and his followers which hides the Imäm’s posture-changes from the followers. However, if there is no confusion for the Imäm-followers regarding the Imäm’s posture-changes on account of the followers’ ability to listen to or view the changes, then following the Imäm is valid.
If is valid for an Imäm-follower with Ablutional purity to follow an Imäm with Tayammum-purity.
It is valid for a person who has washed his feet in Ablution to follow an Imäm who has wiped his feet with wet hands during Ablution.
It is valid for a person performing Saläh standing to follow an Imäm performing Saläh in sitting posture.
It is valid for a straight-backed Imäm-follower to follow a hunchback.
It is a valid for a person performing Saläh by gesture to follow an Imäm performing Saläh likewise by gesture.
If the Imäm’s Saläh gets invalid due to any reason, the Salähs of Imäm-followers too get invalid. It will be compulsory for the Imäm to repeat the Saläh. He should announce that his Saläh was invalid so that the Imäm-followers may also repeat their Salähs.
If the Imäm stands up for the third Saläh-unit before the Imäm-follower completes his Tashahhud, then he should not follow his Imäm in standing. Instead he should complete the Tashahhud, then stand up.
When the Imäm performs the ending Saläm before the Imäm-follower has completed his Tashahhud, the Imäm-follower should not follow his Imäm. Instead he should complete his Tashahhud, and then perform the ending Saläm.
If the Imäm performs an extra prostration, the Imäm-follower should not follow him in the extra prostration.
If the Imäm stands up forgetfully after the last sitting, the Imäm-follower should not follow him in standing up.
If the Imäm continues with the extra Saläh-unit and performs its prostration, the Imäm-follower will then perform the ending Saläm alone.
If the Imäm stands up after the last Saläh-unit without performing the last sitting, the Imäm-follower should not follow him. He should say aloud سُبْحَانَ اللہِ (Subḧänalläh) to draw the Imäm’s attention towards the error and wait for his return to the last sitting.
If the Imäm performs a prostration of the extra Saläh-unit, the Imäm-follower should perform the ending Saläm alone.
If the Imäm-follower performs the ending Saläm before the Imäm performs the a prostration of the extra Saläh-unit, the Imäm-follower’s obligatory Saläh will become invalid.
If the Imäm raises his head from bowing or prostration before the Imäm-follower is able to complete saying سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيْمِ or سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الأعْلىٰ (Subḧäna rabbiyal àz̅ïm or Subḧäna rabbiyal a`lä) thrice, the Imäm-follower should follow his Imäm leaving his remembrance incomplete.
It is Detestable for an Imäm-follower to perform the ending Saläm before his Imäm.
If the Imäm-follower performs the ending Saläm before the Imäm completes his Tashahhud, his Saläh will be invalid.
إِذَا صَلَّى أَحَدُكُمْ فَلْيُصَلِّ إِلَى سُتْرَةٍ وَلْيَدْنُ مِنْهَا. (أبو داود ٦٩٨، إي كيو ١٥٣٨٨)
When one of you performs Saläh, he should perform it towards a Sutrah and he should stand close to it.
Sutrah is an object like wood piece, etc. which a Saläh-performer keeps in front of him so that a passer-by passing in front of him does not disturb his concentration in Saläh.
It is Desirable for an Imäm to keep a Sutrah in front of him if the Saläh is being performed in a place where people frequently pass by.
An Imäm-follower does not need a Sutrah specifically for himself because Imäm’s Sutrah will serve as a Sutrah for him too.
It is Desirable for a Saläh-performer to stand close to the Sutrah.
It is Desirable that the Saläh-performer shift slightly towards right or left of the Sutrah instead of directly facing it.
It is necessary that the Sutrah be at least a cubit in length.
It is also necessary that the thickness of the Sutrah be at least that of a finger.
In a large mosque, passing by in front of a Saläh-performer between his feet and place of prostration on the ground is not permissible.
In an open ground too, passing by in front of a Saläh-performer between his feet and place of prostration on the ground is not permissible.
In a small mosque or a small house, passing by in front of a Saläh-performer between his feet and the wall facing him in the Saläh-direction is not permissible.
Similarly, it is not permissible for a Saläh-performer to perform it in a place where people are likely to pass by in front of him, like performing Saläh without a Sutrah in a place where people frequently pass by.
If a person passes by in front of a Saläh-performer, then it is permissible for the Saläh-performer to move him away through gesture or by saying aloud a remembrance formula.
Similarly, it is permissible for the Saläh-performer to move the passer-by away by raising his voice during recitation.
The Saläh-performer should not push away the passer-by with his hand.
A woman should move away the passer-by through gesture or by clapping, i.e. beating aloud her right palm over the back of her left.
She should not raise her voice during recitation to move away the passer-by.
It is not permissible for a Saläh-performer to break his Saläh after starting it without an excuse valid in the eyes of the Shari'ah.
It is not permissible for a Saläh-performer to break his Saläh when his father or mother calls him.
It is compulsory for a Saläh-performer to break his Saläh when he sees a blind person getting close to a well or a pit and he fears that if he does not warn the blind person, he might fall into it.
It is compulsory for a Saläh-performer to break his Saläh when an oppressed person appeals to him for help provided that he is capable of freeing him from the oppression.
It is permissible for a Saläh-performer to break his Saläh when he sees a thief stealing a property which is equal to a dirham or more no matter whether the property belongs to him or to someone else.
It is permissible for a traveler to postpone his Saläh if he is fearful of thieves.
الْوِتْرُ حَقٌّ، فَمَنْ لَمْ يُوتِرْ فَلَيْسَ مِنَّا. (أبو داود ١٤١٩)
Witr Saläh is a duty, so he who does not observe it does not belong to us. (EQ 16108)
Witr Saläh is compulsory.
If a person misses Witr forgetfully or intentionally, it is compulsory for him to late-perform it.
Witr Saläh consists of three Saläh-units ending with a single pair of ending Saläms.
Witr is offered after completing the traditional Saläh of Ishä comprising two Saläh-units.
It is not permissible to perform Witr sitting when capable of standing.
Similarly, it is not permissible to perform Witr while riding an animal except when he has some excusable difficulty.
In every Saläh-unit of Witr, it is compulsory for the Saläh-performer to recite Fätihah and another Quränic chapter as he does in supererogatory Salähs.
At the end of the first two Saläh-units of Witr, he should sit down for Tashahhud.
He should not continue in this first sitting after completing Tashahhud.
When he stands up for the third Saläh-unit, he should not recite Sanä or “A`üzu billähi minash shaiẗän-ir rajïm”.
When he completes reciting Quränic chapter in the third Saläh-unit, it is compulsory for him to raise his palms to the level of his ears and say Takbïr as he does at the beginning of a Saläh. Then, before bowing he should recite the Qunüt supplication while standing.
Qunüt supplication is compulsory in Witr Saläh throughout the year.
Every one of the Imäm, Imäm-follower and singleton should recite Qunüt supplication inaudibly.
The tradition is to recite the supplication reported by Abdulläh bin Masüd as Qunüt. It is as mentioned in footnote 108:
اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّا نَسْتَعِيْنُكَ وَنَسْتَغْفِرُكَ ، وَنُؤْمِنُ بِكَ وَنَتَوَكَّلُ عَلَيْكَ، وَنُثْنِيْ عَلَيْكَ الْخَيْرَ، وَنَشْكُرُكَ وَلَا نَكْفُرُكَ، وَنَخْلَعُ وَنَتْرُكُ مَن يَّفْجُرُكَ. اللَّهُمَّ إيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ، وَلَكَ نُصَلِّيْ وَنَسْجُدُ، وَإِلَيْكَ نَسْعىٰ وَنَحْفِدُ، وَنَرْجُوْ رَحْمَتَكَ وَنَخْشىٰ عَذَابَكَ، إِنَّ عَذَابَكَ بِالْكُفَّارِ مُلْحِقٌ. (البدر المنير في تخريج الأحاديث والأثار الواقعة في الشرح الكبير ٤/٣٧٠ مع تغيرٍ يسير)
Allähumma innä nastaï̀nuka wa nastag̈firuka, wa nu’minu bika wa natawakkalu àlaika, wa nuthnï àlaik-al khaira, wa nashkuruka wa lä nakfuruka, wa nakhlaù wa natruku mañ yafjuruka. Allähumma iyyäka na`budu, wa laka nus̈allï wa nasjudu, wa ilaika nasä̀ wa naḧfidu, wa narjü raḧmataka wa nakhshä àzäbaka, inna àzäbaka bil kuffäri mulḧiq.
If a person is unable to recite the traditional Qunüt supplication, he should say:
رَبَّنَآ اٰتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَّفِي الْاٰخِرَةِ حَسَـنَةً وَّقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ ٢٠١
Rabbanä ätinä fi-d dunyä ḧasanatañ wa fi-l äkhirati ḧasanatañ wa qinä àzäban när.
If a Saläh-performer forgets reciting Qunüt, then remembers it while bowing, he should not recite Qunüt during bowing, nor should he return to standing posture for reciting Qunüt. Instead, he should perform prostration of forgetfulness after performing the ending saläm for forgetting to perform the compulsory act.
Similarly, if he remembers it after raising his head from the bowing posture, he should not recite Qunüt, rather he should perform prostration of forgetfulness after performing the ending saläm.
If he recites Qunüt after standing up from the bowing posture, he should not repeat the bowing, rather he should perform prostration of forgetfulness for delaying Qunüt from its prescribed time.
If the Imäm bows before the Imäm-follower has completed reciting Qunüt, the latter should not follow the imam. He should complete his Qunüt, then join the Imäm in bowing.
However, if the Imäm-follower fears missing bowing with Imäm, he should leave Qunüt-recitation and follow Imäm in bowing.
If the Imäm misses Qunüt-recitation, the Imäm-follower should recite it if it is possible for him to join the Imäm in bowing.
But if he fears missing bowing with imam, he should follow Imäm and leave out the Qunüt.
In no Saläh other than witr and in times of calamities should a person recite Qunüt.
In times of calamities, it is tradition for Imäm – not for Imäm-follower – to recite Qunüt after raising head from bowing in the last Saläh-unit.
The Imäm should recite the following Qunüt in the Qunüt of calamity. He may add to it supplications reported in the tradition.
اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِنَا بِفَضْلِكَ فِيمَنْ هَدَيْتَ، وَعَافِنَا فِيمَنْ عَافَيْتَ، وَتَوَلَّنَا فِيمَنْ تَوَلَّيْتَ، وَبَارِكْ لَنَا فِيمَا أَعْطَيْتَ، وَقِنَا شَرَّ مَا قَضَيْتَ، فَإِنَّكَ تَقْضِيْ وَلَا يُقْضَى عَلَيْكَ، إِنَّهُ لَا يَذِلُّ مَنْ وَالَيْتَ، وَلَا يَعِزُّ مَنْ عَادَيْتَ، تَبَارَكْتَ رَبَّنَا وَتَعَالَيْتَ، وَصَلَّى اللهُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ، وَّ آلِهِ، وَصَحْبِهِ وَسَلَّمَ.
If a late-comer at Saläh, catches up with the Imäm in the bowing of the third Saläh-unit, he will be considered de jure to have caught up in Qunüt recitation. So, he will not recite Qunüt when he stands up to complete his missed Saläh after the Imäm's ending saläm.
Performing Witr Saläh in congregation in the month of Ramaz̄än is preferable to performing it singly in the last part of night.
Performing Witr in congregation outside Ramaz̄än is detestable.
These are the Salähs which the Prophetﷺ used to perform to get closer to Alläh the Glorious, over and above what Alläh had made obligatory. He used to perform some of the traditional Salähs regularly while the others he used to miss sometimes.
The Salähs which the Prophetﷺ has performed regularly are called emphasized traditions.
The Salähs which he has performed at times and missed at times are called non-emphasized traditions or desirable Salähs.
1. Two Saläh-units before the obligatory Saläh of Fajr
2. Four Saläh-units with one ending saläm before the obligatory Saläh of Zuhr
3. Two Saläh-units after the obligatory Saläh of Zuhr
4. Two Saläh-units after the obligatory Saläh of Maghrib
5. Two Saläh-units after the obligatory Saläh of Ishä
6. Four Saläh-units with one ending saläm before the compulsory Saläh of Friday
7. Four Saläh-units with one ending saläm after the compulsory Saläh of Friday
1. Four Saläh-units before the compulsory Saläh of Asr
2. Six Saläh-units after Maghrib
3. Four Saläh-units after the compulsory Salähs of Ishä
4. Four Saläh-units after Ishä
The traditional Salähs are performed like obligatory Salähs except that in supererogatory Salähs , a Quränic chapter or part thereof is appended to the chapter of Al Fätihah in every Saläh-unit.
If a person performs a supererogatory Saläh of more than two Saläh-units, and sits for At Tahiyyät only at the end of the last Saläh-unit, his supererogatory Saläh will be valid but detestable.
It is detestable to perform more than four Saläh-units with a single ending saläm in day time.
It is detestable to perform more than eight Saläh-units with a single ending saläm at night time.
According to Imäm Abü Hanïfah, the preferable method is to perform four Saläh-units with one ending saläm both in day and at night.
Standing and reciting the Qurän for long durations is preferable to performing more number of Saläh-units.
Performing desirable Salähs at night is preferable over desirable Salähs in day.
It is desirable for a person entering a mosque to perform two units of Saläh before sitting in it. This is called Tahiyyat-ul Masjid (salutation of the mosque).
If he performs the two units after sitting in the mosque, then also there is no problem.
If he performs obligatory Saläh or some other Saläh after entering the mosque without intending Tahiyyat-ul Majsid Saläh with it, then too this Saläh will be sufficient for him, in place of Tahiyyat-ul Masjid.
Two units of Saläh are desirable after ablution and before drying up of water from the body-organs. This Saläh is called Tahiyyat-ul Wuz̄ü ( salutation of ablution).
Four Saläh units are desirable in the forenoon. He may increase the number of Saläh-units as he wishes up to twelve Saläh-units. This Saläh is called Salät-uz Zuhä or the forenoon Saläh.
Two Saläh-units of Istikhärah are desirable. Istikhärah means consultation with Alläh.
Saläh of need consisting of two Saläh-units is desirable.
It is desirable to wake at night in the last ten days of the month of Ramazän.
Waking in the nights preceding Ïdul Fitr and Ïdul Azhä is desirable.
Waking in the first ten nights of Zu-l Hijjah is desirable.
It is desirable to remain awake on the night preceding the fifteenth of Sha’bän.
Gathering for night-waking on any of the above nights is detestable when such a gathering takes place due to invitation.
If the gathering takes place without invitation, then there is no problem.
Preceding emphasized tradition
Preceding non-emphasized tradition
Succeeding emphasized tradition
Obligatory is 2 during journey
Obligatory is 2 during journey
Obligatory is 2 during journey
Sermon precedes obligatory Saläh
The Two Ïds
2 (in each)
Sermon follows compulsory Saläh
Precedes Witr, in Ramaz̄än
 Sufficiency Tradition is a Tradition which is fulfilled if only some people of a locality perform it. Every individual need not perform it.
 Strong wind is not an excuse in the day.
 Otherwise, the Salähs of both the Imäm and the Imäm-follower(s) will be invalid.
 Nasal hemorrhage, nosebleed
 urinary incontinence, uncontrolled or involuntary discharge of urine
 An illiterate person is one who has little or no knowledge of Qur'än, Hadith, Fiqh and the allied sciences, like an ignorant doctor, engineer, scientist, Nobel laureate, farmer, domestic help, etc.
 A knowledgeable person is one who has knowledge of Islamic sciences.
 Due to some excusable difficulty
 Due to forgetfulness or by mistake
 Glory be to Alläh!
 Glory be to my mighty Lord! Glory be to my Lord, most high!
 Sutrah is any object like whip-stick, etc. which is kept in front of a Saläh-performer in an open place to indicate to passers-by passing in front of the Saläh-performer that they should not pass by at a closer distance.
 1 cubit = nearly 18 inches
 Large mosque: Any mosque which is 40 cubits or more in length (perpendicular to Saläh-rows) is a large mosque. Others are small mosques. (Ar Radd-ul Muḧtär àla-d Durr-il Mukhtär 1/634)
 A small house is less than 40 cubits. A large house is 40 cubits or more.
 A dirham is around 2.975 gram of silver (=₹169 at Hyderabad on 29 Apr 2012).
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 O Alläh! We seek help from You. We seek Your forgiveness. We believe in You. We rely on You. We praise You in the best manner. We thank You and are not ungrateful to You. We separate and break up from all who disobey You. O Alläh! We worship You and to You do we pray and prostrate. To You do we flee and we are quick in doing so. We hope for Your mercy and we fear Your punishment. Verily, Your punishment overtakes the Disbelievers.
 Our Lord, give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the punishment of Fire. (Qurän 2:201)
 Allähumma-ghfirlï! (O Alläh, forgive me!)
 Yä rabb! (O Lord!)
 Allähumma-hdinä bifaz̄lika fïman hadaita, wa ä̀finä fïman ä̀faita, wa tawallanä fïman tawallaita, wa bärik lanä fïmä a`ẗaita, wa qinä sharra mä qaz̄aita, fainnaka taqz̄ï wa lä yuqz̄ä àlaika, innahü lä yazillu mañ wälaita, wa lä yaìz̈z̈u man ä̀daita, tabärakta rabbanä wa taä̀laita, wa s̈allallähu àlä sayyidinä Muḧammadiñ, wa älihï wa s̈aḧbihï wa sallam. (based on Musnad Abï Ya'lä: 6759, Nürul Ïz̄äḧ 1/78).
O Alläh! Guide us by Your mercy among those whom You have guided right. Grant us safety among those whom You have granted safety. Take us for friends among those whom You have taken for friends. Bless me in that which You have bestowed upon me. Guard me from the evil of that which You have ordained for it is You Who ordains and none can ordain against You. Indeed, never is he abased whom You take as a friend and none is respected whom You take as a foe. Blessed are You, our Lord, and exalted! Shower Your blessings and peace on our master Muhammad, his kinsmen and his companions.
 According to Imäm Abü Yüsuf, the traditional Salähs after obligatory Friday Saläh are six Saläh-units.
 Supererogatory Saläh is superset of traditional Saläh. Traditional Salähs and desirable Salähs are its two categories.
 The preferable method in the opinion of Imäms Abü Yüsuf and Muhammad is to perform Salähs of two units each at night and Salähs of four units each in day.
 Night-waking means engaging in acts of obedience to and worship of Alläh most of the night, like Saläh, Qurän recitation, remembrance of Alläh.
 Starting at around 20 minutes after sunrise and ending a little before noon.
 It does not matter whether the gathering takes place in a mosque or some other place.