Thursday, January 3, 2013

Salah (Namaz) - Constituents, Manner

Constituents of Salah

Prerequisites for validity of Saläh

There are some things which are not included in the essence of Saläh but are necessary for validity of Saläh. If one of these things is missed, Saläh will not be valid. These things are called prerequisites of Saläh and they are six:
1.       Purity: Saläh will not be valid without Purity.
The scope of Purity includes:
a.       Purity of body from de jure Filth: The body of the Saläh-performer should be Pure from both minor and major de jure Filths[1].
b.      Purity of body from de facto Filth: The body of the Saläh-performer should be free of de facto Filth in an inexcusable quantity.
c.       Purity of garments: The garments on the Saläh-performer’s body should be free of de facto Filth in an inexcusable quantity.
d.      Purity of place: The place where the person is performing Saläh should be Pure from de facto Filth.
“Purity of place” requires that that the places where the Saläh-performer’s feet, hands, knees and forehead will be falling on the ground at the time of Prostration should be Pure.
2.       Covering the organs to be hidden: Saläh will not be valid if he does not hide the organs to be hidden when he is capable of it.
It is necessary that the organs to be hidden should remain hidden from the start of the Saläh till the end.
If a quarter or more of an organ to be hidden is uncovered before starting the Saläh, the Saläh will not be valid.
If a quarter or more of an organ to be hidden gets uncovered during Saläh for a period in which the smallest Saläh-essential may be performed, then his Saläh will become invalid.
·         Limits of organs to be covered for man: from the navel to the end of knees.
Knees are organs to be hidden unlike the navel which is not an organ to be hidden.
·         Limits of organs to be covered for free woman: entire body excluding the face, palms and feet
·         Limits of organs to be covered for slave woman: from navel to the end of knees in addition to her abdomen and back
3.       Facing the holy Ka’bah: Saläh will not be valid  without facing the Ka’bah if he is capable of it.
·         The exact position of Ka’bah: It is the direction-to-face for a person who is in the holy city of Makkah and is able to view the Ka’bah from his place.
·         The general direction of Ka’bah: It is the direction-to-face for a person who is unable to view the Ka’bah.
The general direction of Ka’bah is also the direction-to-face for a person away from the holy city of Makkah.
If a person is unable to face the stipulated direction owing to a disease or fear from an enemy, it is permissible for him to face whichever direction he is capable of.
4.       Time of Saläh: Saläh will not be valid before its start-time.
The times of Salähs have been described in detail previously.
5.       Intention: Saläh is not valid without intention.
If the Saläh is obligatory, specifying it is compulsory, like intending for Zuhr or Âsr.
Similarly, if the Saläh is compulsory, specifying it is compulsory, like intending for Witr or Îd Saläh.
If the Saläh is supererogatory, specifying it is not a prerequisite. Intending just for a Saläh is enough.
If the Saläh-performer is an Imäm-follower, it is necessary for him to intend to follow the Imäm in the Saläh.
6.       Prohibitive words of Saläh[2]: This means that the Saläh should be started with a remembrance formula meant only for Alläh, like saying: اَللهُ أكْبَرُ (Allähu akbar[3]), اَللهُ أعْظَمُ (Allähu a`z̅am[4]), or سُبْحَانَ اللہِ (Sub-ḧänalläh[5]).
The Saläh-performer should not separate his intention of Saläh and the starting Takbïr by an act that is contrary to the Saläh like eating or drinking.
It is a prerequisite that the person should:
·         Say the prohibitive words before bending for Bowing.
·         Not make the intention after the prohibitive words.
·         Say اَللهُ أكْبَرُ (Allähu akbar)[6] in a manner that he himself is able to hear it.

Other rulings related to Prerequisites of Saläh

If a person does not find anything with which to remove de facto Filth, he should perform Saläh with the Filth on him. He does not need to repeat the Saläh.
If a person does not find a garment to hide his organs to be covered nor grass or clay, then he should perform Saläh without garments. He does need to repeat the Saläh.
If a quarter of the person’s garment is Pure, performing Saläh without clothes is not permissible for him.
If a person’s garment is Filthy, then performing Saläh in the Filthy garment is preferable to performing it without clothes.
A person without cloths when performing Saläh should sit and spread his legs towards the Saläh-direction and should Bow and Prostrate through gesture.
Saläh is permissible on the Pure side of a Filthy cloth-sheet if the sheet is so large that shaking one of its ends does not cause movement in the other end.
Saläh is permissible on a mattress whose top surface is Pure and bottom surface Filthy.
If a person is confused about the Saläh-direction and he is unable to find another person whom to ask about it nor does he find anything that can help him in determining the Saläh-direction, then he should perform Saläh on the basis of his guess.
If he performed Saläh based on his guess but later it turned out that his guess about the Saläh-direction was wrong, then also his Saläh will be valid.
If he comes to know of his error during his Saläh, he should turn towards the Saläh-direction immediately and continue with his Saläh.
If several of the organs to be hidden get bare during Saläh and if the total of bare parts adds up to the size of a quarter of the smallest bare organ-to-be-hidden, then his Saläh will be invalid.
But if the total of the bare parts is less than the above mentioned amount, his Saläh will be valid.

Essentials of Saläh

There are five essentials[7] of Saläh which are also its obligatory constituents.
If a person misses one of them, his Saläh will be invalid no matter whether he missed it knowingly or unknowingly.
1.       Standing: Saläh that does not include standing will be invalid if the person is capable of standing.
Standing is obligatory in obligatory and compulsory Salähs.
Standing is not obligatory in supererogatory Salähs.
So a supererogatory Saläh is valid without standing even if the person is capable of standing.
2.       Qur'än recitation: of at least a small verse. A Saläh without recitation is invalid.
Qur'än recitation is obligatory in two Saläh-units of obligatory Salähs.
Qur'än recitation is obligatory in all the Saläh-units of compulsory and supererogatory Salähs.
If a Saläh-performer is an Imäm-follower, then he is relieved of the duty of Qur'än recitation. In fact, it is avoidable for him.
3.       Bowing: Saläh without Bowing is invalid.
The obligatory amount of Bowing is established by lowering his head in a manner that his body gets closer to the state of perfect Bowing than to the state of standing.
As for perfect Bowing, it is established by lowering the back in the forward direction to the extent that the head is in level with the posterior.
4.       Prostration: Saläh is invalid unless one performs two Prostrations in every Saläh-unit.
The obligatory amount of Prostration is established by placing upon the ground a part of the forehead, one of the palms, one of the knees and some part of a side of one of the feet.
The perfect Prostration is established by placing both hands, both knees, both feet, the forehead and the nose upon the ground.
Prostration is valid only if done upon a thing on which the forehead can rest stably such that if the person forces down his forehead it does not go lower than the initial position.
Prostrating only upon the nose and excluding the forehead will not be valid unless he is suffering from an excusable difficulty.
If a person prostrates upon his palm or upon a side of his garment, it will be valid but avoidable.
For the validity of Prostration, it is a prerequisite that the place of prostrating the head should not be higher than the place of the feet by more than half cubit.
If the place of prostrating the head is higher by more than half cubit, Saläh will not be valid unless it is highly overcrowded there.
5.       The last sitting for the duration of Tashahhud-recitation

·         Some Islamic jurists have included “coming out of the Saläh by a voluntary act” in the essentials, but according to authoritative scholars, it is not obligatory, rather it is compulsory.

Compulsory acts of Saläh

The following acts are Compulsory[8] in salahs.
If a person misses any of the following no matter unknowingly, his Saläh will be deficient and the deficiency can be compensated for by two prostrations of forgetfulness.
If a person misses any of these knowingly, repeating the Saläh will be Compulsory for him. If he does not repeat, he will be a sinner.
1.       Takbïr: Starting the Saläh by the particular words of Takbïr اَللهُ أكْبَرُ (Allähu akbar[9])
2.       Fätihah: Reciting the Quränic chapter of Fätihah (chapter 1) in the first two Saläh-units of Obligatory Salähs and in all the Saläh-units of Compulsory and supererogatory Salähs
3.       Additional chapter: Additional recitation of a small Quränic chapter or three small Quränic verses after Fätihah in the first two Saläh-units of Obligatory Salähs and in all the Saläh-units of Compulsory and supererogatory Salähs
4.       Ordered recitation: Reciting the additional chapter after Fätihah
5.       Prostrations without gap: Performing the second prostration after the second prostration without any gap[10]
6.       Temperance: Performing all the mandatory acts with temperance and tranquility
7.       First sitting: The first sitting for a period in which it is possible to recite Tashahhud (Tahiyyät)
8.       Reciting Tashahhud: Reciting Tashahhud in the first sitting as also in the second sitting (See footnote 107.)
9.       Standing up for the third Saläh-unit: Standing up immediately, without delay for the third Saläh-unit after completing Tashahhud
10.   Saläm: Exiting the Saläh with the words of اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ (As salämu àlaikum wa raḧmatulläh[11]) twice
11.   Qunüt of Witr: Reciting the Qunüt invocation in the third Saläh-unit of Witr after completing Fätiḧah and the additional chapter (See footnote 108.)
12.   Extra Takbïrs: The extra Takbïrs (اَللهُ أكْبَرُ Allähu akbar) in the Salähs for the two Ïds. They are said thrice in each Saläh-unit.
13.   Takbïr of bowing: The takbïr before bowing in the second Saläh-unit of the two Ïd-Salähs
14.   Audible recitation: Audible recitation by the Imäm in both the Saläh-units of Fajr, Friday-Saläh, the two Ïd-Salähs; the first two Saläh-units of Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Ishä; and all the Saläh-units of Taräwïh and Witr during Ramazän.
A single Saläh-performer has the option of reciting audibly in these Salähs or reciting inaudibly. However, reciting audibly is preferable for him in the above mentioned Saläh-units.
15.   Inaudible recitation: Inaudible recitation by Imäm and single Saläh-performer in all Saläh-units of Zuhr and Asr, the third Saläh-unit of Maghrib, the last two Saläh-units of Ishä, and all Saläh-units of supererogatory Salähs performed during the day.
If a person misses reciting the additional chapters in the first two Saläh-units of Ishä, he should recite them in the last two after Fätihah audibly and then perform the prostrations of forgetfulness.
If a person misses Fätihah in the first two Saläh-units, he should not repeat them in the last two. Instead, he should perform the prostrations of forgetfulness to compensate for the omission.

Traditions of Saläh

The following acts are the Prophet’s traditions in Saläh which should be followed to make the Saläh perfect and to obey the Prophet’s command:صَلُّوا كَمَا رَأَيْتُمُونِي أُصَلِّي. (البخاري ٦٣١)  (Perform Saläh as you have seen me performing.) (EQ 603)
1.       Standing straight at the time of saying the first Takbïr اَللهُ أكْبَرُ (Allähu akbar[12]) without lowering the head
2.       Raising the palms to the level of the ears[13] before the first Takbïr
3.       Keeping the inner sides of the palms and fingers towards the Saläh-direction while raising the hands
4.       Leaving the fingers in their natural state, i.e. a bit spread-out, while raising the hands. The fingers should neither be made to stick to each other nor to spread out to the maximum extent.
5.       Keeping the right hand over the left below the navel[14]
6.       Keeping the inner side of the right palm over the outer side of the left palm while encircling the left wrist[15] with his right little finger and thumb[16]
7.       Reciting extolment after keeping his hands below navel:
سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ وَتَبَارَكَ اسْمُكَ وَتَعَالَى جَدُّكَ وَلَا إِلَهَ غَيْرُكَ. (الترمذي: ٢٤٢)
Subḧänak-allähumma wa biḧamdika wa tabärak-asmuka wa ta`älä jadduka wa lä iläha ghairuk[17].
8.       Saying  أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ  (A`üzu billähi minash shaiẗän-ir rajïm[18]) after this and before reciting Fätihah[19]
9.       Saying بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ  (Bismilläh-ir Raḧmänir Raḧïm[20]) in every rak’ah before reciting Fätiḧah
10.   Saying آمِيْن (Ämïn[21]) inaudibly at the completion of Fätihah
11.   Leaving a gap of four finger-widths between his feet
12.   Reciting after Fätihah Quränic chapters out of Tiwäl e Mufassal[22] (chapters 49 to 85) in Fajr and Zuhr; chapters out of Ausät e Mufassal (chapters 86 to 98) in Asr and Ishä; and chapters out of Qisär e Mufassal (chapters 99 to 114) in Maghrib
13.   Making the first Saläh-unit of Fajr longer than the second, only in Fajr
14.   Saying Takbeer (Allähu akbar) while bowing down
15.   Holding his knees with his palms and spreading out the fingers completely in the state of bowing
16.   Flattening his back and bringing his head in level with his posterior while keeping his shanks upright
17.   Sayingسُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ  (Subḧäna rabbiyal `az̅ïm[23]) during bowing at least thrice
18.   Keeping apart his arms from his torso-sides while bowing, for males only
19.   Sayingسَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ  (Sami`allähu liman ḧamidah[24]) while raising the head from bowing, for imäms only.
An imäm-follower should say inaudiblyرَبَّنَا وَ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ (Rabbanä wa lakal ḧamd[25]).
A singleton should say both.
20.   Saying takbïrs (Allähu akbar) for prostrations
21.   Keeping his knees on the ground first, then his hands, and then his face for Prostrations
22.   Raising his face, then his hands, and then his knees while getting up from Prostrations
23.   Keeping his face between his palms during Prostrations
24.   Keeping apart his abdomen from his thighs, his elbows from his torso-sides and his arms from the ground surface during Prostrations
25.   Keeping the fingers of his hands close together during Prostrations
26.   Keeping his feet-toes facing the Saläh-direction during Prostrations
27.   Sayingسُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى  (Subḧäna rabbiyal a`lä[26]) inaudibly at least thrice during Prostration
28.   Saying takbïr (Allähu akbar) for rising up from Prostrations
29.   Standing up directly from the second Prostration without sitting or resting the hands on the ground. When there is some physical disability, then there is no harm in these acts
30.   Keeping the hands over the thighs while sitting between the two Prostrations just as is done in the sitting posture for Tashahhud
31.   Spreading down[27] the left foot and keeping upright the right foot during the first sitting (after two Saläh-units) and the last sitting
32.   Pointing with his right forefinger during Tashahhud. The forefinger is to be raised when sayingلَا إِلَهَ  (Lä iläha[28]) and lowered when sayingإِلَّا اللَّهُ  (Illallähu).
33.   Reciting Fätihah in the last two Saläh-units of Zuhr, Âsr and Ishä, and the third Saläh-unit of Maghrib
34.   Saying the supplication of blessings[29] for the Prophetafter Tashahhud in the last sitting
35.   After Saläh for the Prophet, he should supplicate using supplications of Qur'än and Hadïth-books. One such supplication is:
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي ظُلْمًا كَثِيرًا وَلَا يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ فَاغْفِرْ لِي مَغْفِرَةً مِنْ عِنْدِكَ وَارْحَمْنِي إِنَّك أَنْتَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ. (البخاري ٨٣٤، ٧٣٨٧)
(Allähumma innï z̅alamtu nafsï z̅ulman katheerä, wa lä yagfiruz-zunüba illä ant(a), fagfir lï magfiratam min `indik(a), warḧamnï, innaka ant-al gafür-ur rahïm[30])
36.   Turning his face right and left while saying السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ (As salämu `alaikum wa raḧmatulläh[31]) each time
37.   The imäm should say the takbïrs (Allähu akbar) for every posture change audibly while the imäm-followers should say inaudibly.
38.   The imäm should say السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ (As salämu `alaikum wa raḧmatulläh) twice audibly and the imaam-followers should say them inaudibly.
39.   The imäm should intend men, angels who protect us and pious jinns while performing the two saläms (As salämu `alaikum wa raḧmatulläh).
An imäm-follower should also intend his imäm along with the other beings when turning in the direction of the imäm for saläm.
A singleton should intend only the angels with his saläm.
40.   The Saläh-performer should lower his voice during the second saläm compared to the first saläm.
41.   Starting saläms from the right side and then turning to the left
42.   The saläm of the imäm-follower should be along with the salaam of his imäm.
43.   An imäm-follower who has missed some Saläh-units should wait for the imäm to complete both his saläms. He should get up for completing his remaining Saläh-units only after the imäm has completed both his saläms.

Desirable acts of Saläh

The following acts are desirable in Saläh. Observing them is commendable and they make the Saläh perfect.
1.       A man should pull out his palms from under his chador (robe) or from his sleeves while raising his hands for the first takbïr. A woman should not pull out her palms.
2.       A prayer-performer should look at his place of Prostration while standing in Saläh.
3.       He should look at the top his feet while Bowing.
4.       He should look at his nose-tip during Prostration.
5.       He should look at his lap while sitting.
6.       He should look at his shoulders while performing saläms at the end.
7.       He should try to suppress cough and yawn as much as possible.
8.       If he feels compelled to yawn, then he should cover his mouth with his palm.
9.       He should recite in the first and the last sittings of Salähs the Tashahhud reported from Abdulläh bin Mas’üd[32].
10.   He should recite in the last Saläh-unit of Witr specifically the invocation Allähumma innä nasta`ïnuka …[33]

Invalidators of Saläh

Saläh is broken when any of the following happens during Saläh:
1.       One of the prerequisites of the Saläh is not present.
2.       The Saläh-performer misses one of the essentials of Saläh.
3.       He makes conversation during Saläh no matter it happened intentionally, unknowingly or mistakenly.
4.       He supplicates in words which are similar to human conversation, e.g. saying: “Alläh! Marry me to so and so woman.”, “Alläh! Give me an apple to eat.”
5.       He greets a person by saying saläm or responds to a greeting by tongue or through handshake.
It does not matter whether the greeting occurred intentionally, unknowingly or mistakenly.
If he responds to a greeting of saläm by gesture, then his Saläh will not be broken.
6.       He does a major non-Saläh act[34].
7.       He turns away his chest from the Saläh-direction[35].
8.       He eats or drinks something, even if the thing is less in quantity.
9.       He eats something that had stuck to his teeth during Saläh and the thing was equal in size to a gram-grain or larger[36].
10.   He hems without need[37].
11.   He sighs, whines, groans or wails not on account of Alläh’s fear[38].
A sick person who is unable to control his groans or sighs is excluded from this rule. His Saläh will not be broken owing to these.
12.   He weeps with a loud sound and the weeping was not owing to Alläh’s fear or due to the mention of Paradise or Hell, rather it was due to some pain or calamity.
13.   The organs to be hidden get bare during Saläh and remain so for a period in which a small essential of Saläh may be performed.
14.   De facto Filth is found on his body, garments or the place of Saläh and it remains there for the period of a small Saläh-essential.
15.   He becomes insane during Saläh.
16.   He loses consciousness during Saläh.
17.   The sun rises during Fajr Saläh.
18.   Noon begins during Ïd Saläh.
19.   The time of Asr starts during Friday Saläh.
20.   He was performing Saläh with Tayammum and during the Saläh, he found water or became capable of using water.
21.   His Ablutional purity got invalid due to his own act[39] or due to some other person’s act.
22.   He elongates the starting hamz̈ah of Allähu akbar[40].
23.   He recites from the book of holy Qur'än.
24.   He performs a Saläh-essential in the state of sleep and on getting up from sleep, he does not repeat the essential.
25.   The Saläh-performer is a person of tartïb[41] and while performing a Saläh, he remembers that there is a Saläh which he has yet to perform.
26.   The imäm makes a person who is incapable of doing the job of imäm his deputy during Saläh.
27.   He thinks (he is not sure) that an Ablution-invalidator has occurred to him, so he goes out of the mosque, passes by rows of Saläh-performers, or crosses the Sutrah[42] in case it is not a mosque.
28.   He laughs audibly during Saläh.
29.   He pulls out any or both of his thick socks during Saläh no matter whether it is done with a minor non-Saläh act or a major non-Saläh act[43].
30.   An Imäm-follower precedes his Imäm in performing a Saläh-essential such that he is not with the Imäm during that Saläh-essential even for a moment.
For example, the Imäm-follower bows and then raises his head from Bowing before his Imäm starts that Bowing, then he does not repeat the Bowing with him.
31.   A major de jure Filth occurs to him during Saläh, no matter whether it occurs on account of looking at a woman, thinking about her or nocturnal emission.

Acts which do not invalidate the Saläh

Saläh is not broken due to the following acts:
1.       He unknowingly performs Saläm to come out of the Saläh[44].
2.       A person passes by him through his place of Prostration.
3.       He eats something that had stuck to his teeth and its size was less than that of a gram-grain.
4.       He looks at a transcript and understands its meaning.

Detestable acts of Saläh

The following acts are detestable in Saläh. A Saläh-performer should avoid them else his Saläh will get marred with defect.
1.       Intentionally leaving out a Tradition of Saläh
2.       Playing with the garment or a part of one’s body
3.       Performing Saläh in shabby garments
4.       Reclining upon something during Saläh
5.       Turning one’s neck right and left without need
6.       Performing Saläh facing a person
7.       Performing Saläh when suppressing with difficulty urine, excrement or flatus
8.       Performing Saläh on someone else’s land without his (explicit or implicit) permission
9.       Performing Saläh facing fire or stove in which fire is present
10.   Performing Saläh in a lowly place like bathroom, toilet
11.   Performing Saläh on a road
12.   Performing Saläh in a graveyard
13.   Performing Saläh close to Filth
14.   Performing Saläh with Filth in small quantity with which Saläh is permissible
15.   Performing Saläh in a garment with picture of an animate being
16.   Performing Saläh at a place with picture, no matter whether the picture is above his head, in front of him or behind him[45]
17.   Crackling one’s fingers
18.   Interlocking one’s fingers
19.   Sitting cross-legged without an excusable difficulty
20.   Squatting[46]
21.   Laying down one’s arms during Prostrations
22.   Placing one’s hands upon waists
23.   Rolling up one’s sleeves from the arms
24.   Performing Saläh only in lower garment like lungi or trousers despite being capable of wearing kurta (shirt)
25.   Performing Saläh with bare head without any excusable difficulty or expediency[47]
26.   Performing Saläh behind a Saläh-row in which there is enough gap for one person
27.   Counting Qur'änic verses or remembrance formulas on fingers
28.   Wiping off dust which was not hurting him from one’s forehead during Saläh
29.   Restricting oneself to prostration upon forehead[48] only without any excusable difficulty
30.   Performing Saläh in the presence of meal while his heart is inclined towards it
31.   Fixing a Qur'änic chapter such that he does not recite any other chapter[49]
32.   Repeated recitation of the same chapter in the two Saläh-units of an obligatory Saläh in the case when he remembers other chapters too
33.   Intentionally reciting the chapters against their order in obligatory Salähs[50]
34.   Making the recitation in the second Saläh-unit longer than in the first to an excessive degree[51]
35.   Turning one’s fingers or toes away from Saläh-direction during Prostration, etc.
36.   Prostration upon one’s turban or upon an animate being’s picture
37.   Reciting two Qur'änic chapters in an obligatory Saläh which are separated by a small chapter, e.g. reciting Takäthur (chapter 102) in the first Saläh-unit and Humazah (chapter 104) in the second and leaving out the chapter of Asr (chapter 103) lying between them
38.   Not placing the palms upon the knees while Bowing
39.   Not placing the palms upon the thighs during Tashahhud-sittings and while sitting between two Prostrations
40.   Yawning
If yawn overcomes him during Saläh, he should cover his mouth by placing the back of his right palm over his mouth.
41.   Responding to a Saläm-greeting by gesture
42.   Catching hold of a louse and killing it
43.   Performing Saläh when he has tied his head with a kerchief keeping the centre of his head bare
44.   Performing Saläh with braided hair[52]
45.   Raising the front or back of his garments during Bowing or Prostration fearing it might get sullied by dust
46.   Letting a cloth hang down freely, i.e. putting it over his head or shoulder and leaving its sides free by not tying it together
47.   Letting his lungi or trousers hang lower than his ankles
48.   Bowing before finishing recitation and completing it while Bowing
49.   Standing of an Imäm completely inside the Imäm-niche in a mosque without any excusable difficulty[53]
50.   Standing of Imäm alone without any excusable difficulty on a raised platform higher by a cubit or more than the normal ground, or in a depressed place lower by a cubit or more than the normal ground. But if one more person from amongst the Imäm-followers stands with him in that place, the Saläh will not be detestable.
51.   Shutting one’s eyes without any expediency[54]
52.   Raising one’s sight towards the sky

Non-detestable acts of Saläh

The following acts if done in Saläh are not detestable:
1.       Looking here and there with eyes without turning one’s face
2.       Performing Saläh facing a copy of the holy Qur'än
3.       Performing Saläh facing a person who is sitting and engaged in conversation
4.       Performing Saläh facing a candle or lamp
5.       Repeating the same Qur'änic chapter in two Saläh-units of a supererogatory Saläh
6.       Wiping off dust or weeds from one’s forehead after completing the Saläh
Same will be the ruling if one wipes off dust or weeds during Saläh if it was hurting him or distracting him from Saläh.
7.       Killing a snake or scorpion if he feared harm from it
8.       Shaking off his garments while Bowing or Prostrating to prevent it from sticking to his body
9.       Prostrating on a carpet containing pictures of animate beings provided he does not prostrate on them
10.   Performing Saläh facing a sword suspended from the ceiling

Manner of performing Saläh

When you plan to perform a Saläh, stand up and raise your hands to the level of your ears with the intention of performing the Saläh. Say: اَللهُ أكْبَرُ (Allähu akbar[55]). Place your right hand upon your left below your navel immediately after the first Takbïr, then recite: سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ وَتَبَارَكَ اسْمُكَ وَتَعَالَى جَدُّكَ وَلَا إِلَهَ غَيْرُكَ. (الترمذي: ٢٤٢) (Subḧänak-allähumma wa biḧamdika wa tabärak-asmuka wa ta`älä jadduka wa lä iläha ghairuk.[56])
Say inaudibly[57]:أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ  (A`üzu billähi minash shaiẗän-ir rajïm[58]).
Say inaudibly[59]: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ  (Bismilläh-ir Raḧmänir Raḧïm[60]).
Recite the Quränic chapter of Fätihah. After completing it, say inaudibly آمِيْن (Ämïn[61]), then recite another Quränic chapter, or at least three short Quränic verses or one long verse. Go for bowing, saying اَللهُ أكْبَرُ (Allähu akbar), flattening your back with your posterior and holding your knees with your palms while keeping your fingers spread out. Say in the state of bowing: سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ  (Subḧäna rabbiyal `az̅ïm[62]) at least thrice. Then raise your head from bowing, saying[63]: سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ  (Sami`allähu liman ḧamidah[64]) and when standing straight, say: رَبَّنَا وَ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ  (Rabbanä wa lakal ḧamd[65]). But if you are an Imäm-follower, you should say only “Rabbanä wa lakal ḧamd”. Stand with ease and tranquility. Then go down for prostration saying اَللهُ أكْبَرُ (Allähu akbar) and placing first your knees upon the ground, then your hands and then your face between your palms.
Perform prostration with your nose and forehead in tranquility keeping your abdomen apart from your thighs and your upper arms separated from your sides when there is not much crowd. Keep your fingers and your toes facing the Saläh-direction and say during the prostration:سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى  (Subḧäna rabbiyal a`lä[66]) at least thrice.
Say اَللهُ أكْبَرُ (Allähu akbar) raising your head from the first prostration and sit on folded knees, at ease and in tranquility between the two prostrations, keeping your palms over your thighs. Again, say اَللهُ أكْبَرُ (Allähu akbar) for the second prostration and say سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى  (Subḧäna rabbiyal a`lä) at least thrice in the second prostration too.
Raise your head saying اَللهُ أكْبَرُ (Allähu akbar) and stand upright without taking support from the ground with your palms and without sitting in the process.
Thus, completes your first Saläh-unit.
Do in the second Saläh-unit all that you did in the first, except that you should not raise your palm in the beginning, nor recite “Subḧänak-allähumma wa biḧamdika wa tabärak-asmuka wa ta`älä jadduka wa lä iläha ghairuk”, nor say “A`üzu billähi minash shaiẗän-ir rajïm”. On completing the second prostration of the second Saläh-unit, spread down your left foot and sit upon it. Keep your right foot upright making its toes face the Saläh-direction. Keep your palms over your thighs with your fingers a little spread out. Recite the Tashahhud that has been reported from Abdulläh bin Mas’üd:
التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ. أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ. (البخاري ٨٣١)
At taḧiyyätu lillähi was̈ s̈alawätu waẗ ẗayyibät. As salämu àlaika ayyuhan nabiyyu wa raḧmatullähi wa barakätuh. As salämu àlainä wa àlä ìbädilläh-is̈ s̈äliḧïn. Ash-hadu al lä iläha illallähu wa ash-hadu anna Muḧammadan àbduhü wa rasüluh[67].
Point towards your front with your forefinger at “Ash-hadu al lä iläha illalläh”. For this, raise your forefinger towards your front when you say “lä iläha” and put it down while saying “illalläh”.
If the Saläh consists only of two Saläh-units like the Saläh of Fajr, then say Saläh (prayer of blessing) for the Prophetafter this Tashahhud. For this purpose, say:
اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ، اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ. (البخاري: ٣٣٧٠)
Allähumma s̈alli àlä Muḧammadiñ wa àlä äli Muḧammadin kamä s̈allaita àlä Ibrähïma wa àlä äli Ibrähïma, innaka ḧameedum majïd. Allähumma bärik àlä Muḧammadiñ wa àlä äli Muḧammadin kamä bärakta àlä Ibrähïma wa àlä äli Ibrähïma, innaka ḧameedum majïd[68].
Then pray with one of the supplications reported in the Qurän or Hadith-books, e.g.[69]
 رَبَّنَآ اٰتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَّفِي الْاٰخِرَةِ حَسَـنَةً وَّقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ  ٢٠١؁ (القرآن ٢٠١:٢)
Rabbanä ätinä fid duniyä ḧasanatañ wa fil äkhirati ḧasanatañ wa qinä àzäb-an när[70].
Then, turn your face right and left saying each time السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ (As salämu `alaikum wa raḧmatulläh[71]), intending to greet each time the Saläh-performers with you, the pious jinns and the angels who protect us.
If the Saläh consists of three or four Saläh-units, then do not continue the first sitting after Tashahhud. Rather stand up after completing the Tashahhud for the third Saläh-unit saying Allähu akbar. Read only the chapter of Fätihah in the third Saläh-unit, and if the Saläh consists of four Saläh-units like Zuhr and Asr, then in the fourth Saläh-unit, too. After Fätihah, bow and prostrate as you did in the first two Saläh-units.
After the two prostrations of the last Saläh-unit, sit and recite Tashahhud in the last sitting, then say Saläh for the Prophet as previously explained.



[1] In other words, he should be in an ablutionally Pure state.
[2] Also called starting Takbïr and prohibitive Takbïr. “Prohibitive” means that several permissible acts like walking, talking, eating, etc. become prohibited as soon as the Saläh-performer says these words.
[3] Alläh is the greatest.
[4] Alläh is the supreme.
[5] Glory be to Alläh.
[6] Or any other prohibitive word
[7] The Arabic word for “essentials” is “arkän” which is the plural of “rukn”. “Rukn” is something which constitutes the essence of a thing and whose obligation is based on an evidence beyond doubt.
[8] The Arabic word for Compulsory is “wäjib”. It is a command whose being necessary is established by an evidence in which there is a sort of doubt, like the case when the evidence is tenable, not incontrovertible, e.g. news from a single source, or the case when the denotation of the text is tenable, e.g. due to a word with two or more meanings.
[9] Alläh is the greatest.
[10] Due to some other act of Saläh.
[11] Peace and Alläh’s mercy be upon you.
[12] Alläh is the greatest.
[13] A woman should raise her palms to the level of her shoulders before the first Takbïr.
[14] A woman should place her palms over her breast.
[15] The three right middle fingers will be placed over the back of the left wrist.
[16] A woman should place the inner side of her right palm over the outer side of her left palm without encircling.
[17] Extolment or Sanä: O Alläh! You are without blemish, and You are praiseworthy. Your name is blessed and your glory is exalted. There is no God besides you. (EQ 25935)
[18] I seek refuge with Alläh from Satan, the outcast. (Bukhärï 6115, EQ 5766)
[19] An imäm-follower should not say A`üzu billähi minash shaiẗän-ir rajïm and Bismilläh-ir Raḧmänir Raḧïm. But if he has missed one or more rak’ahs behind the imäm, then he should say A`üzu billähi minash shaiẗän-ir rajïm and Bismilläh-ir Raḧmänir Raḧïm in the first Saläh-unit that he performs after the imäm.
[20] With the name of Alläh, the All-Merciful, the Very-Merciful.
[21] (Alläh!) Accept this from us.
[22] Tiwäl e Mufassal, Ausät e Mufassal and Qisär e Mufassal are the names given to different groups of chapters of the holy Qurän.
·         Tiwäl e Mufassal (long chapters of distinct verses): chapter 49 (Hujurät) to 85 (Burüj)
·         Ausät e Mufassal (medium-sized chapters of distinct verses): chapter 86 (Täriq) to 98 (Bayyinah)
·         Qisär e Mufassal (short chapters of distinct verses): chapter 99 (Zilzäl) to the end, i.e. 114 (Näs)
[23] Glory be to my mighty Lord. (Muslim 772, EQ 8947)
[24] Alläh heard those who sent praises to Him. (EQ 655, Bukhärï 689)
[25] O our Lord! All the praises are for you. (EQ 655, Bukhärï 689)
[26] Glory be to my Lord, most high. (Muslim 772, EQ 8947)
[27] A woman should sit over her posterior (buttocks), place her thighs over the ground and extrude her left foot from beneath her right thigh.
[28] Lä iläha : There is no god; Illallähu: except Alläh.
[29] The preferable supplication of blessings for the Prophet is:
اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ، اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ. (البخاري: ٣٣٧٠)
Allähumma s̈alli àlä Muḧammadiñ wa àlä äli Muḧammadin kamä s̈allaita àlä Ibrähïma wa àlä äli Ibrähïma, innaka ḧameedum majïd. Allähumma bärik àlä Muḧammadiñ wa àlä äli Muḧammadin kamä bärakta àlä Ibrähïma wa àlä äli Ibrähïma, innaka ḧameedum majïd .
O Alläh! Send Your Mercy on Muhammad and on the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your Mercy on Abraham and on the family of Abraham, for You are the Most Praise-worthy, the Most Glorious. O Alläh! Send Your Blessings on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as You sent your Blessings on Abraham and on the family of Abraham, for You are the Most Praise-worthy, the Most Glorious. (EQ 3168)
[30] O Alläh! I have wronged my soul very much (oppressed myself), and none forgives the sins but You; so please bestow Your Forgiveness upon me and have mercy upon me. No doubt, You are the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (EQ 798, 6970)
[31] Peace and Alläh's Mercy be upon you. (Bukhärï 3326, EQ 3126)
[32] The Tashahhud reported from Abdulläh bin Mas’üd is:
التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ. أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ. (البخاري ٨٣١)
At taḧiyyätu lillähi was̈ s̈alawätu waẗ ẗayyibät. As salämu àlaika ayyuhan nabiyyu wa raḧmatullähi wa barakätuh. As salämu àlainä wa àlä ìbädilläh-is̈ s̈äliḧïn. Ash-hadu al lä iläha illallähu wa ash-hadu anna Muḧammadan àbduhü wa rasüluh.
All the compliments, prayers and good things are due to Alläh. Peace be on you, O Prophet and Alläh's mercy and blessings be on you. Peace be on us an on the true pious slaves of Alläh. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Alläh and I also testify that Muhammad is His slave and His Apostle. (EQ 796).
[33] This is the Qunüt invocation which in its complete form is as follows:
اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّا نَسْتَعِيْنُكَ وَنَسْتَغْفِرُكَ ، وَنُؤْمِنُ بِكَ وَنَتَوَكَّلُ عَلَيْكَ، وَنُثْنِيْ عَلَيْكَ الْخَيْرَ، وَنَشْكُرُكَ وَلَا نَكْفُرُكَ، وَنَخْلَعُ وَنَتْرُكُ مَن يَّفْجُرُكَ. اللَّهُمَّ إيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ، وَلَكَ نُصَلِّيْ وَنَسْجُدُ، وَإِلَيْكَ نَسْعىٰ وَنَحْفِدُ، وَنَرْجُوْ رَحْمَتَكَ وَنَخْشىٰ عَذَابَكَ، إِنَّ عَذَابَكَ بِالْكُفَّارِ مُلْحِقٌ. (البدر المنير في تخريج الأحاديث والأثار الواقعة في الشرح الكبير ٤/٣٧٠ مع تغيرٍ يسير)
Allähumma innä nastaï̀nuka wa nastagfiruka, wa nu’minu bika wa natawakkalu àlaika, wa nuthnï àlaik-al khaira, wa nashkuruka wa lä nakfuruka, wa nakhlaù wa natruku mañ yafjuruka. Allähumma iyyäka na`budu, wa laka nus̈allï wa nasjudu, wa ilaika nasä̀ wa naḧfidu, wa narjü raḧmataka wa nakhshä àzäbaka, inna àzäbaka bil kuffäri mulḧiq.
O Alläh! We seek help from You. We seek Your forgiveness. We believe in You. We rely on You. We praise You in the best manner. We thank You and are not ungrateful to You. We separate and break up from all who disobey You. O Alläh! We worship You and to You do we pray and prostrate. To You do we flee and we are quick in doing so. We hope for Your mercy and we fear Your punishment. For verily, Your punishment overtakes the Disbelievers.
[34] A major non-Saläh act is one which appears to an observer that the performer of this act is not in Saläh.
[35] However, if an Ablution-invalidator happened to a Saläh-performer and he turned back to go out for Ablution, his Saläh will not be broken.
[36] If the thing that has been eaten was smaller than a gram-grain, his Saläh will not be broken.
[37] If he hems on account of some excusably difficulty, or to improve his voice, or to warn his imäm of a mistake that he made, his Saläh will not be broken.
[38] If he cries due to Alläh’s fear or owing to the mention of Paradise or Hell, his Saläh will not be broken.
[39] If an Ablution-invalidator occurred to him without his intention, his Saläh will not be broken. He should perform Ablution and continue with his Saläh.
[40] Elongating the starting hamzah changes the meaning. It now means: “Is Alläh great?” which indicates a question or doubt.
[41] A person of Tartïb is one who does not have a missed Saläh upon him. All the Saläh that became obligatory upon him in his life, he either performed them on time or has late-performed them by now.
[42] Sutrah is any object like whip-stick, etc. which is kept in front of a Saläh-performer in an open place to indicate to passers-by passing in front of the Saläh-performer that they should not pass by at a closer distance.
[43] A major non-Saläh act is one which appears to an observer that the performer of this act is not in Saläh. Any other non-Saläh act done during Saläh is a minor non-Saläh act.
[44] He thought that he had completed the Saläh but soon after the Saläm, he remembers that he has yet to complete one or more Saläh-units.
[45] However, if the picture is so small that if placed at the place of Prostration, the person standing in Saläh is unable to recognize it, or if the picture is headless or of an inanimate thing, then Saläh is not detestable in that place.
[46] Here, squatting means sitting like a dog with posteriors on the ground.
[47] If he keeps his head bare due to some excusable difficulty or to show humility to Alläh, then his Saläh will not be detestable.
[48] By not letting his nose touch the floor
[49] If he fixes a Qur'änic chapter for a Saläh due to an excusable difficulty or to get the blessing of following the holy Prophetﷺ in reciting that particular chapter, then his Saläh will not be detestable.
[50] Like reciting chapter 109 before chapter 101. But if he goes against the order forgetfully, then it will not be detestable.
[51] If he makes the second longer than the first by two or three verses, then it is not detestable.
[52] Tying up the hair of his head in this way at the front or back of his head
[53] If the Imäm stands outside the Imäm-niche and prostrates inside it, or he stands completely inside the Imäm-niche due to lack of space outside, it will not be detestable.
[54] If he shuts his eyes to increase his concentration in the Saläh, this act will not be detestable.
[55] Alläh is the greatest.
[56] O Alläh! You are without blemish, and You are praiseworthy. Your name is blessed and your glory is exalted. There is no God besides you. (EQ 25935)
[57] An Imäm-follower should not say “A`üzu billähi minash shaiẗän-ir rajïm” because this is meant for Qurän-recitation and the Imäm-follower does not have to recite. The Imäm and the singleton should say this only in the first Saläh-unit.
[58] I seek refuge with Alläh from Satan, the outcast. (Bukhärï 6115, EQ 5766)
[59] An Imäm-follower should not say “Bismilläh-ir Raḧmänir Raḧïm”. The Imäm and the singleton should say this in every Saläh-unit before reciting Fätihah.
[60] With the name of Alläh, the All-Merciful, the Very-Merciful. (Tirmizï 245, EQ3.41: 26104)
[61] (Alläh!) Accept this from us.
[62] Glory be to my mighty Lord! (Muslim 772, EQ 8947)
[63] The Imäm should say “Sami`allähu liman ḧamidah”, the Imäm-follower should say “Rabbanä wa lakal ḧamd”, and the singleton should say both.
[64] Alläh heard those who sent praises to Him. (EQ 655, Bukhärï 689)
[65] O our Lord! All the praises are for you. (EQ 655, Bukhärï 689)
[66] Glory be to my Lord, most high! (Muslim 772, EQ 8947)
[67] All the compliments, prayers and good things are due to Alläh. Peace be on you, O Prophet, and Alläh's mercy and blessings be on you. Peace be on us and on the true pious slaves of Alläh. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Alläh and I also testify that Muhammad is His slave and His Apostle. (EQ 796).
[68] O Alläh! Send Your Mercy on Muhammad and on the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your Mercy on Ibrähïm and on the family of Ibrähïm , for You are the Most Praise-worthy, the Most Glorious. O Alläh! Send Your Blessings on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as You sent your Blessings on Ibrähïm and on the family of Ibrähïm, for You are the Most Praiseworthy, the Most Glorious. (EQ 3168)
[69] If you like, you may recite this supplication:
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي ظُلْمًا كَثِيرًا وَلَا يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ فَاغْفِرْ لِي مَغْفِرَةً مِنْ عِنْدِكَ وَارْحَمْنِي إِنَّك أَنْتَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ. (البخاري ٨٣٤، ٧٣٨٧)
Allähumma innï z̅alamtu nafsï z̅ulman katheerä, wa lä yag̈firuz-zunüba illä ant(a), fag̈fir lï mag̈firatam min `indik(a), warḧamnï, innaka ant-al g̈afür-ur rahïm.
O Alläh! I have wronged my soul very much (oppressed myself), and none forgives the sins but You; so please bestow Your Forgiveness upon me and have mercy upon me. No doubt, You are the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (EQ 798, 6970)
[70] Our Lord, give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the punishment of Fire.
[71] Peace and Alläh's Mercy be upon you. (Bukhärï 3326, EQ 3126)

2 comments:

  1. Thank you so much for this work.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Jazakallahu Khaira for this.

    ReplyDelete