Obligatory Saläh in sitting posture is invalid when the person is capable of standing.
Similarly, Compulsory Saläh in sitting posture is invalid when the person is capable of standing.
Supererogatory Saläh in sitting posture despite the person being capable of standing is valid.
If a person performs a supererogatory Saläh in sitting posture without excusable difficulty, he gets half the reward of a person performing it in standing position.
If a person performs it in sitting posture due to an excusable difficulty, his reward is similar to that of a person performing it while standing.
A person performing Saläh in sitting posture should sit in the same way as he sits in At Tahiyyät.
If a person starts a supererogatory Saläh in standing position, it is permissible for him to complete it in sitting posture and this act will not be detestable.
Saläh on an animal
Obligatory Saläh performed on the back of an animal is invalid.
Similarly, compulsory Saläh performed on the back of an animal is invalid.
Thus, Witr Saläh, Saläh of vow, and delayed performing of a supererogatory Saläh which the person had broken after starting it are not permissible on the back of an animal.
Saläh on the back of an animal no matter whether it is obligatory of compulsory is valid if the person is faced with an excusable difficulty, like he fears an enemy if he gets down from the animal, he fears a carnivore, or he fears the animal becoming stubborn, or there is mud at the place.
Similarly, if he is incapable of mounting the animal on his own and there is nobody to help him mount it, then performing Saläh sitting on the animal is valid.
Emphasized traditions are valid on an animal. However for the traditional Saläh of Fajr, he should get down because it is more emphasized than others.
If the person performs Saläh on animal outside a city, he should perform it through gesture facing the direction his animal is turned to.
Saläh on ship
According to Imäms Abü Yüsuf and Muhammad – Alläh’s mercy be upon them ¬–, obligatory Saläh in sitting posture on a sailing ship without excusable difficulty is invalid.
Saläh by gesture on a ship is not valid for a person capable of performing bowing and prostration.
If the ship is anchored to the coast, Saläh in sitting posture on it is not valid when the person is capable of standing.
If the person is not capable of getting out of the ship, then performing Saläh on ship is valid no matter whether the ship is anchored or sailing.
Saläh in train and airplane
Obligatory and compulsory Salähs on a running trains or a flying airplane in sitting posture without an excusable difficulty is invalid according to most of the Imäms of jurisprudence. However, if he is faced with an excusable difficulty like dizziness, then it is valid.
Similarly, if the train is shaking a lot such that standing becomes difficult, then Saläh in sitting posture is valid.
If the person performs Saläh in standing position between two seats and performs prostration on one of them, his Saläh will be valid if it is not possible for him to perform prostration on the floor of the train.
If the train is standing, then according to all jurists, Saläh in sitting posture on it without an excusable difficulty is invalid.
Similarly, if the airplane is standing on ground, Saläh in sitting posture on it without excusable difficulty is invalid.
If the person starts his Saläh facing the Saläh-direction, then the train or airplane changes direction, the person should turn towards the new Saläh-direction if he is capable of it.
If he is not capable or he is unaware of change in direction of the train or airplane, then his Saläh is valid.
The Prophetﷺ said:
مَنْ قَامَ رَمَضَانَ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا، غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ. (البخاري: ٣٧)
Whoever establishes prayers during the nights of Ramadan faithfully out of sincere faith and hoping to attain Alläh's rewards (not for showing off), all his past sins will be forgiven. (EQ: 36)
Taräwïh Saläh is an emphasized tradition for every individual man and woman.
Taräwïh Saläh in congregation is sufficiency tradition for the people of a locality.
Taräwïh Saläh consists of 20 Saläh-units performed with 10 ending Saläms. The time of Taräwïh starts after Ishä Saläh and extends up to the beginning of dawn.
It is desirable to perform Taräwïh before Witr Saläh.
Performing Witr before Taräwïh is valid, but advancing Taräwïh is preferable.
If is desirable to delay Taräwïh Saläh up to one-third of the night or to half of the night.
Delaying Taräwïh to later than midnight is not detestable.
It is desirable to sit after every four Saläh-units for relaxation to the amount of of time in which four Saläh-units may be performed.
Similarly, it is desirable to sit for relaxation between the 20th Saläh-unit and Witr.
It is tradition to recite or listen to the recitation of the holy Qurän in its entirety in Taräwïh once in the month of Ramaz̄än.
So, the Imäm should not leave out recitation of the complete Qurän due to laziness of the people.
Also, he should not leave out supplication of blessings for the Prophetﷺ in the sitting after every two Saläh-units even if the people get tired.
In the same way, he should not leave out Sanä and the remembrance formulas of bowing and prostration even if the people feel tired.
He may leave out the supplication after blessings on the Prophetﷺ if the people feel tired due to it.
But the preferable way is to recite a short supplication so that following of the tradition is achieved.
Taräwïh Saläh should not be late-performed, neither individually nor in congregation.
وَاِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْاَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ اَنْ تَقْصُرُوْا مِنَ الصَّلٰوةِ ڰ (القرآن ١٠١:٤)
When you travel on the earth, there is no sin on you in shortening your Salah.
Anas رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ reported:
خَرَجْنَا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مِنَ المَدِينَةِ إِلَى مَكَّةَ فَكَانَ يُصَلِّي رَكْعَتَيْنِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ حَتَّى رَجَعْنَا إِلَى المَدِينَةِ.
We travelled with the Prophet from Medina to Mecca and offered two Rakat (for every prayer) till we returned to Medina.
The least amount of travel in which shortening of Saläh become compulsory and breaking fast in Ramaz̄än becomes permissible is the one covering a distance of three days out of the shortest days of the year by foot or on camel with average speed.
If a person covers a distance of three days in, say, one hour on a fast vehicle like train or airplane, then also shortening of Saläh is compulsory for him.
Shortening of Saläh is compulsory for a traveler.
If a person performs the complete Saläh while in journey, he has committed a bad act.
The traveler should shorten the obligatory Saläh in Zuhr, Asr and Ishä.
So on these occasions, he should perform two Saläh-units as obligatory Saläh, instead of four.
He should not shorten the Saläh in Fajr and Maghrib.
For validity of the intention to travel, three things are prerequisites:
1. The person who has made the intention should be an adult.
If he is a child, then shortening of Saläh will not be compulsory for him.
2. The person who has made the intention should be independent in his journey.
Shortening of Saläh will not be compulsory if he is subordinate in the travel to a person who has not made the intention to travel.
The intention of wife to travel will not be valid when his husband has not made that intention as she is subordinate to her husband.
Similarly, the intention of a servant is not valid when his master has not intended to travel as the servant is subordinate to his master.
The intention of a soldier to travel is also not valid when his commander has not made that intention as he is subordinate to his commander.
3. The (one-way) distance of the journey should not be less than three days by foot.
Shortening of Saläh is permissible only when the traveler has come out of the village and crossed past its buildings.
Shortening of Saläh is permissible only when the traveler has come out of the city and crossed past its buildings and yards.
Shortening of Saläh does not become permissible by merely making the intention of travel as long as he has not left behind the village or the city.
If the person has come out of his house but not yet crossed past the yards of the city or the buildings of the village, then also shortening of Saläh is not permissible.
Shortening of Saläh is compulsory in all journeys no matter whether the journey was undertaken for an act of virtue like Haj or Jihäd, or for a permissible act like trading, or for a sinful act like thievery.
If a traveler completes a four-unit Saläh having sat for At Tahiyyät after the first two units, his Saläh will be valid. The last two Saläh-units will become supererogatory. However, such a Saläh is detestable as the ending Saläm has been relocated from its rightful position.
If a traveler completes a four-unit Saläh without sitting at the end of the first two units for a period in which At Tahiyyät may be recited, then his Saläh will be invalid. The reason is that shortening is a necessitation according to Hanafïs, not mere concession.
The traveler will keep performing shortened Salähs till he returns to and enters his city or village.
However, if during journey he intends to reside at a city or village for fifteen days or more, he will not shorten his Salähs.
If he intends to reside for less than fifteen days, he will keep performing shortened Salähs.
Similarly if he does not make intention of residing but remains at a place for years, he will keep performing shortenend Salähs.
It is permissible for a traveler to perform Saläh following a resident Imäm. The traveler should then complete the four-unit Salähs, following his Imäm.
A resident may also follow a traveler Imäm.
When a traveler is the Imäm for residents, he should, after completing his two units in a four-unit Saläh and performing the ending Saläm say out loud: "I am a traveler so you people complete your Saläh."
But the preferable way is to say out this before starting the Saläh as well as after completing his two units.
When a resident follower stands up to complete his Saläh after his traveler Imäm has performed the ending Saläm, he should not recite in the units. He should instead complete his remaining units without Qurän recitation like the follower whose ablution breaks during Saläh, so he goes back for ablution and returns to complete the missed out units.
If a person misses a four-unit Saläh during journey, he will late-perform it as two units, whether he does this during the journey or when resident.
If a person misses a four-unit Saläh while resident, he will late-perform it as four units no matter whether he does this during journey or while resident.
Residences are of two kinds: (1) Principal and (2) Temporary
(1) Principal Residence
It is the city or village which the person has made his permanent residence irrespective of whether he is married in that place or not.
Principal residence can be invalidated by another principal residence.
If a person migrates from his principal residence to a new city or village and makes it his permanent residence, then returns to his previous principal residence for any reason, he will perform shortened Salähs as it is no more his principal residence.
(2) Temporary Residence
It is a city or village where the person intends to stay for 15 days or more.
A temporary residence is invalidated by another temporary residence.
Temporary residence is invalidated by traveling out of it.
Temporary residence is also invalidated by returning to the principal residence.
لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللّٰهُ نَفْسًا اِلَّا وُسْعَهَا. (القرآن ٢٨٦:٢(
Alläh does not obligate anyone beyond his capacity.
Alläh’s Prophetﷺ said:
صَلِّ قَائِمًا، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَسْتَطِعْ فَقَاعِدًا، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَسْتَطِعْ فَعَلَى جَنْبٍ.
Pray while standing and if you cannot, pray while sitting and if you cannot do even that, then pray lying on your side." 
Leaving out Saläh is not permissible even when sick.
If a person is so sick that he is unable to perform the essential parts of Saläh in entirety, then he should complete all the essentials that he is able to.
A sick person who is unable to stand in Saläh should perform Saläh while sitting and do the bowing and prostrations.
Similarly a sick person for whom standing is very difficult on account of severe pain should perform Saläh while sitting and do the bowing and prostrations.
Likewise, if a person fears acquiring a new disease, aggravation of an already existing disease or delay in cure from a disease on account of standing in Saläh, he should perform Saläh while sitting.
If a person is unable to perform both of or either of bowing and prostrations, he should perform Saläh while sitting and perform bowing and/or prostrations by gesture.
If a person is bowing and prostrating by gesture, he should make his gesture for prostrations lower than his gesture for bowing.
If he does not make his gesture for prostrations lower than his gesture for bowing, his Saläh will be invalid.
It is not permissible to raise an object to perform prostration upon it.
If a sick person is unable to sit, then he should perform Saläh while lying with his back down and keeping his legs towards the Saläh-direction. He should keep his knees upright and his head raised upon a pillow so that his face is in the direction of the Saläh-direction. He should perform bowing and prostrations by gesture.
Similarly, if the person is unable to sit, it is permissible for him to lie on his side for Saläh and perform bowing and prostration by gesture.
Gesture will take the place of bowing and prostrations only when it is made with the head.
If the gesture is done with eyes, eyebrows or in the heart, the Saläh will not be valid.
If a person is unable to perform Saläh by gesture with head, he will late-perform the Salähs of up to one day and night. Further to it, the Salähs will not be obligatory for him.
If a person suffers from insanity or swoon and the insanity or swoon continues for more than five Salähs, those Salähs will not be obligatory for him.
If a person suffers from insanity or swoon and the insanity or swoon continues for up to five Salähs or less, he should late-perform the Salähs after regaining his health.
If a person starts his Saläh in standing position, then he feels himself incapable of standing, he should perform Saläh sitting if he can. If he is unable to sit also, then he should perform Saläh by gesture lying on bed.
اِنَّ الصَّلٰوةَ كَانَتْ عَلَي الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ كِتٰبًا مَّوْقُوْتًا ١٠٣ (القرآن ١٠٣:٤)
Surely, Salah is an obligation on the believers that is tied up with time.
It is compulsory to perform the Salähs in their specific times.
Delaying a Saläh over its end-time-limit without an excusable difficulty is not permissible.
If a person delays his Saläh over its end-time-limit on account of an excusable difficulty, late-performing it after the end of the difficulty is essential.
Late-performing a missed obligatory Saläh is obligatory.
Late-performing a missed compulsory Saläh is compulsory.
Missed traditional and desirable Salähs need not be late-performed. However, if any of them was broken after it had been started, then late-performing it would be compulsory.
If a person misses the traditional as well as the obligatory units of Fajr, then he should late-perform the traditional units along with the obligatory units till a little before midday.
If he misses only the traditional Saläh of Fajr, then he should not late-perform it.
Keeping the missed Saläh and the current Saläh in order is compulsory.
Performing the current Saläh before performing the missed Saläh is not permissible.
Similarly, performing the various missed Salähs in order is also compulsory.
Thus, late-performing a missed Zuhr Saläh before the missed Fajr of the same day is not permissible.
Performing obligatory Salähs and Witr in order is also compulsory.
Performing Fajr before late-performing the previous night's missed Witr is not permissible.
Performing the various missed Salähs in order and keeping the missed Saläh and the current Saläh in order is compulsory only when the number of missed Salähs other than Witr has not reached six.
If the number of missed Salähs is less than six and the person intends to late-perform them, then it will be compulsory for him to perform them in order. He should, for instance, late-perform Fajr before Zuhr and Zuhr before Asr.
In the following three cases, performing Salähs in order does not remain compulsory:
1. The number of missed Salähs other than Witr is six or more.
2. The person fears missing the current Saläh due to limited time remaining.
3. The person forgets that he has to late-perform a missed Saläh, and hence performs the current Saläh forgetfully.
If the sixth missed Saläh is Witr, it will be compulsory for the person to late-perform Witr before performing Fajr.
If, on account of the number of missed Salähs reaching six or more, performing them in order did not remain compulsory, then it will continue to be so even when the number of missed Salähs later becomes less than six. For example, a person missed ten Salähs, nine of which he late-performed and one still remains. Then he performs the current Saläh before late-performing the missed one, remembering that he has a missed Saläh upon him. This will be permissible and his Saläh will be valid as the compulsoriness of performing in order has lost effectiveness for him.
If a person performs the current Saläh while remembering that he has to late-perform a missed one, his current obligatory Saläh will become invalid, but this invalidity will be suspended.
If he performs five Salähs before late-performing the missed Saläh remembering all the while that he has a missed Saläh upon him, then the invalidity will lose effectiveness when the time for the fifth performed-on-time Saläh passes. All his five obligatory Salähs will be valid.
But if he late-performs the missed Saläh before the time for the fifth performed-on-time Saläh passes, then all the five obligatories will become invalid. These obligatories get converted to supererogatories. It will now be necessary for him to late-perform these five Salähs as well which he had performed before late-performing the single missed Saläh.
If there are many missed Salähs, the person needs to specify each of them when late-performing.
But if specifying each Saläh becomes difficult for him, then he will, of instance, make intention that he is performing his first missed Zuhr, or his last missed Zuhr.
A person starts an obligatory Saläh singly. But before he performs a prostration, the congregational obligatory Saläh begins there. Then he should break his Saläh by performing one ending Saläm while standing and join the congregation.
If a person has started obligatory Saläh of Fajr or Maghrib and performed a prostration too, then the congregational obligatory Saläh begins, he should break his Saläh and join the congregation.
If he started a four-unit obligatory Saläh and completed one Saläh-unit, then the congregational obligatory Saläh begins, he should singly perform the second unit too. Then he should perform the ending Saläm and join the congregation with the intention of performing the obligatory Saläh. The two units which he had performed singly will become supererogatory.
If the congregational Saläh begins after a person has singly performed three units of a four-unit Saläh, he should complete the fourth unit too singly. Then he should join the congregation behind the Imäm with the intention of performing a supererogatory, if it is Zuhr or Ishä. If it is Asr, he should not join the congregation.
If the congregational Saläh begins after a person has singly performed two units of a four-unit Saläh and stood up for the third unit but not yet performed a prostration of the third unit, then he should break his Saläh with an ending Saläm while standing, then join the congregation with the intention of performing the obligatory Saläh.
If on the occasion of a Friday Saläh, a person has started the pre-obligatory four-unit traditional Saläh, then the Imäm comes out for sermon, the person should complete two units and perform the ending Saläm. After completing the obligatory Friday Saläh, he should late-perform this four-unit tradition.
If the congregation for obligatory Zuhr Saläh begins after a person has started the pre-obligatory four-unit traditional Saläh, he should complete two units and perform the ending Saläm. He should then join the congregation and late-perform this four-unit tradition after completing the obligatory.
If a person enters mosque after the congregational obligatory Saläh has started, he should join the congregation instead of engaging in a traditional Saläh, except in Fajr.
If a person enters mosque after the congregational obligatory Fajr Saläh has started, he should perform the pre-obligatory two-unit tradition outside the mosque or in a distant corner, if it appears overwhelmingly probable to him that he will be able to catch up with the Imäm in the second Saläh-unit.
If he fears missing the time of Fajr for the obligatory two units or the congregation, he should perform the obligatory and leave out the two-unit tradition.
If a person catches up with the Imäm during bowing, he has de jure caught up with that entire unit.
If the Imäm raises his head before the person bows, then he has de jure missed that entire unit.
It is detestable to go out of a mosque after Saläh-call has been made up to the completion of the congregational Saläh.
Going out of mosque after Saläh-call has been made is not detestable for a person who is Imäm or Saläh-announcer at another mosque.
If congregational Saläh for Zuhr or Ishä begins when a person in the mosque has already performed it, it will be detestable for him to go out of the mosque. He should instead join the congregation with the intention of performing a supererogatory Saläh.
If congregational Saläh for Fajr, Asr or Maghrib begins when a person has already performed it singly, then going out of the mosque is not detestable for him.
If a sick person becomes capable of late-performing missed Salähs, though by gesture, but he dies before late-performing them, it will be compulsory for him to make a will to his testamentary guardian to pay the penalty of missed Salähs.
Similarly, if a sick person becomes capable of late-performing missed fasts, but dies before late-performing them, it will be compulsory for him to make a will to his testamentary guardian to pay the penalty of missed Salähs.
If the sick person dies before late-performing the missed Witr Salähs at the time of which he was capable, then also it will be compulsory for him to make a will to his testamentary guardian to pay its penalty.
The guardian will pay the penalty out of a third of the inheritance.
The penalty for Saläh of each of the five times is: 1.632 kg of wheat or its market-price, or 3.264 kg of barley or its market-price.
The penalty for fast of each day is: 1.632 kg of wheat or its market-price, or 3.264 kg of barley or its market-price.
It is permissible for the testamentary guardian to pay the penalty for all Salähs to a single poor person.
It is also permissible for him to pay the penalty for all fasts to a single poor person.
However, in case of the penalty for expiation of a vow, it is not permissible to pay one poor person in one day more than 1.632 kg of wheat or its equivalent.
If the deceased did not make a will for payment of penalty, yet the testamentary guardian by himself paid on his behalf, then it is hoped that it will be accepted by Alläh.
It is not valid for the testamentary guardian to fast on behalf of the deceased in lieu of the latter's missed fasts.
It is not valid for the testamentary guardian to perform Saläh on behalf of the deceased in lieu of the latter's missed Salähs.
If the sick person dies before he becomes capable of performing Saläh by gesture, making a will for payment of penalty will not be necessary for him, no matter whether the missed Salähs were many or few.
Similarly, if a sick person dies before he becomes capable of observing the fasts he missed during the period of his death-sickness, it will not be necessary for him to make the will, no matter whether the missed fasts were many or few.
Likewise, if a traveler dies before becoming resident, it will not be necessary for him to make a will for payment of the penalty of fasts.
If a person leaves out an essential act of Saläh, it will be invalid and it will be compulsory for him to repeat the Saläh.
The deficiency in Saläh will not be remedied by prostrations of forgetfulness nor by any other thing, no matter whether he left out the essential act intentionally or forgetfully.
If a person leaves out a compulsory act of Saläh intentionally, then he is a sinner. His Saläh is invalid and it is compulsory for him to repeat the Saläh. The deficiency in Saläh cannot be remedied by prostrations of forgetfulness.
If a person leaves out a compulsory act of Saläh forgetfully, it is compulsory for him to perform prostrations of forgetfulness. The deficiency in his Saläh will be remedied by these prostrations.
Thus, prostrations of forgetfulness are compulsory in the following cases:
- The person leaves out recitation of the Quränic chapter of Fätihah forgetfully in both or either of the first two units of an obligatory Saläh.
Same will be the ruling if he leaves out recitation of the chapter of Fätihah forgetfully in any of the units of a supererogatory or Witr Saläh.
- The person forgets additional Quränic recitation in the first two units of an obligatory Saläh, then does this recitation in the last two units.
- He forgets throughout the Saläh the additional Quränic recitation in both or either of the first two units of an obligatory Saläh.
Same will be the ruling if he forgets the additional recitation in any unit of a supererogatory or Witr Saläh.
- He recites Fätihah twice. In this case, he has delayed the additional Quränic recitation from its rightful position.
- He performs only one prostration and stands up for the next unit. Then in that or later unit, he performs the two prostrations of that unit as well as the prostration he missed earlier. In this case, his Saläh will be valid and prostrations of forgetfulness will be compulsory for him.
- He leaves out forgetfully the first At Tahiyyät sitting in a three- or four-unit Saläh, no matter whether he left it out in an obligatory Saläh or a supererogatory Saläh.
If a person leaves out the first At Tahiyyät sitting in an obligatory Saläh forgetfully and stands up completely for the third unit, he should continue the third unit instead of returning for the sitting. Later, he should perform the prostrations of forgetfulness as he has left out the compulsory act of the first At Tahiyyät sitting.
- He leaves out the recitation of At Tahiyyät forgetfully.
- He forgets to say the Qunüt Takbïr in a Witr Saläh.
- He forgets reciting the Qunüt supplication before bowing in a Witr Saläh.
- The Imäm recites audibly in a Saläh of inaudible recitation.
- The Imäm recites inaudibly in a Saläh of audible recitation.
- He does more than At Tahiyyät recitation in the first At Tahiyyät sitting, like forgetfully reciting the blessings supplication for the Prophetﷺ after completing the At Tahiyyät, or staying silent for a period in which one of the smallest essentials of Saläh may be performed.
Prostrations of forgetfulness are compulsory for both Imäm and Imäm-followers due to the Imäm's forgetfulness.
Prostrations of forgetfulness are not compulsory if an Imäm-follower forgets something while following the Imäm.
Prostrations of forgetfulness will be compulsory if the Imäm-follower forgets while completing his missed units after the Imäm has performed the ending Saläms.
If an Imäm performs prostrations of forgetfulness after it became compulsory for him, then it will be compulsory for the Imäm-followers to follow him in the prostrations of forgetfulness.
If prostrations of forgetfulness become compulsory for a person, yet he leaves them out intentionally, then he will be a sinner. Repeating the Saläh will be compulsory for him.
If a person leaves out more than one compulsory act forgetfully, then also two prostrations of forgetfulness will be enough for him.
If a person leaves out the first At Tahiyyät sitting in an obligatory Saläh forgetfully and begins standing up, then he should return to the sitting provided he has not completely stood up straight. At the time of returning, if he was closer to standing, he should perform the prostrations of forgetfulness and if he was closer to sitting, he should not perform them.
If a person forgets the first At Tahiyyät sitting in a supererogatory Saläh, he should return to the sitting as soon as he remembers, even if he has completely stood up straight. Later, he should perform the prostrations of forgetfulness.
If a person forgets the last At Tahiyyät sitting and stands up, he should return to the sitting unless he has performed a prostration of the fifth unit. Later he should perform the prostrations of forgetfulness.
If a person forgets the last At Tahiyyät, stands up and performs a prostration of the next unit, his obligatory Saläh will become supererogatory. He should perform the sixth unit in Zuhr, Asr and Ishä, and the third unit in Fajr. Afterwards, he should repeat the obligatory Saläh.
If a person sits and recites At Tahiyyät in the last At Tahiyyät sitting, then stands up thinking that it was the first At Tahiyyät sitting, he should return to the sitting and perform the ending Saläm without repeating the At Tahiyyät.
If a person performs the ending Saläm with the intention of exiting the Saläh when prostrations of forgetfulness were compulsory for him, he should immediately on remembering perform the prostrations of forgetfulness unless he has done an act that is contrary to the state of Saläh, like turning away from the Saläh direction or talking.
If a person performing a four-unit Saläh mistakenly thinks that he has completed his Saläh, so he performs the ending Saläm, then he comes to know that he has performed two units only, then should continue with the Saläh. He should perform the left out units and prostrate for forgetfulness.
A person for whom prostrations of forgetfulness are compulsory should complete At Tahiyyät in the last At Tahiyyät sitting and perform one ending Saläm to his right. He should then say the Takbïr and perform two prostrations like the normal prostrations of Saläh. Then he should sit and recite At Tahiyyät which is compulsory. After this he should recite the blessings supplication for the Prophetﷺ and the last supplication meant for himself. Next, he should perform the two ending Saläms for exiting the Saläh.
If he prostrates for forgetfulness before perform the Saläm, his Saläh will be valid but this act is undesirable.
- Prostrations of forgetfulness are not required in Friday Saläh if the congregations is very large. This is to avoid confusion for the Imäm-followers.
- Prostrations of forgetfulness are not required in Ïd Salähs if the congregation is very large.
- They are not required in Fajr if after performing the ending Saläm, the sun rises.
- They are not required in Asr if after performing the ending Saläm, the sun turns red.
- They are not required if after the ending Saläm, an act contrary to Saläh is done forgetfully like talking.
In all the above cases, repeating the Saläh is not compulsory.
If during a Saläh, the person falls in doubt about the number of Saläh-units performed and this doubt has occurred to him for the first time, then his Saläh becomes invalid. Repeating the Saläh will be compulsory for him.
If a person doubts about the number of Saläh-units after the ending Saläm, his Saläh will not be invalid.
If a person after performing the ending Saläms feels certain that he has left out one or more Saläh-units, he should perform the left out units unless he has done an act contrary to Saläh. If he has done an act contrary to Saläh like talking, he should repeat the complete Saläh.
If a person falls in doubt most of the time and the doubt has become a kind of habit for him, he should act upon what appears overwhelmingly probable to him. If neither side of the doubt appears overwhelmingly probable, then he should act according to the lower of the Saläh-units regarding which he is in doubt. But he should sit after each Saläh-unit considering it to be his last unit. In the end he should perform the prostrations of forgetfulness.
A prostration of recitation is compulsory when any of the following three things happens:
1. A person recites a verse of prostration no matter whether he heard it or not. Similarly prostrations of recitation become compulsory when a person recites the Arabic word of “sajdah” (prostration) from a Quränic verse of prostration along with a word before it or after it.
2. He hears a verse of prostration no matter whether he intended it or not.
3. He follows an Imäm who has recited a verse of prostration no matter whether the Imäm-follower heard the recitation of the verse or not.
Prostration of recitation is not compulsory for women undergoing menstruation or postnatal discharge.
If an Imäm-follower recites a verse of prostration, then also prostrations are not compulsory, neither for the Imäm nor for the Imäm-follower.
Prostration of recitation is not compulsory for a sleeping person, an insane person, a child or a Disbeliever.
Prostration of recitation is not compulsory when the verse is heard from a non-human being like a parrot.
Prostration of recitation is not compulsory when one hears the verse from a device like tape recorder or cell phone.
At times, it is compulsory to perform prostration of recitation immediately while at others it can be delayed.
It is permissible to delay performing prostration of recitation if it has become compulsory outside Saläh. So, outside Saläh, if the person delays the prostrations, he will not be a sinner. However, delaying it is undesirable.
Performing the prostration of recitation immediately is compulsory if it has become compulsory inside Saläh. This happens if a person recites a verse of prostration during Saläh. In this case, performing it immediately is compulsory.
Performing the prostration immediately means that the gap between the recitation of the verse of prostration and the actual prostration should not be longer than the time required for reciting three small verses of the holy Qurän. This period is called the period of immediacy.
If a period of time longer than that required for reciting three verses passes between the recitation and the prostration, then it will not be called immediate.
If a person did not perform the prostration in Saläh, instead he bowed before the period of immediacy ended and he intended the prostration of recitation with this bowing, then it will be sufficient for him.
Similarly, if he does not perform the prostration of recitation but performs the usual prostrations of Saläh before the period of immediacy ends, then also it will be sufficient, no matter whether he intended performing the prostration of recitation or not.
If the period of immediacy has ended, then neither the bowing nor the prostrations of Saläh will suffice for the missed prostration of recitation. As long as he is in the Saläh, it will be compulsory for him to late-perform it with a special prostration.
If he has exited the Saläh, he should not late-perform it outside the Saläh as the time for it has expired. However, if he exits the Saläh through the ending Saläm, then he should late-perform it provided he has not performed a Saläh-invalidating act.
If the Imäm and the Imäm-followers hear a verse of prostration from a person who was not accompanying them in the Saläh, then the Imäm and the Imäm-followers should perform the prostration of recitation after completing the Saläh.
If they perform this prostration of recitation in the Saläh, the prostration will be invalid but their Saläh will not be broken.
If a person, not in Saläh, hears a verse of prostration from an Imäm, and he subsequently follows the Imäm in the Saläh before the Imäm has prostrated for that verse, then he should follow the Imäm in the prostration.
If a person hears a verse of prostration from an Imäm, then joins him in the Saläh in that very Saläh-unit but after the Imäm has performed the prostration for that verse, then he will be considered de jure to have caught up with the prostration. So he should not perform the prostration of recitation – neither in the Saläh nor outside the Saläh.
If a person recites a verse of prostration outside Saläh and does not perform the prostration, then stands up for Saläh without changing his place and recites the same verse in the Saläh and prostrates for it, then this prostration inside Saläh will be sufficient for him in place of the two prostrations of recitation.
If a person repeatedly recites a verse of prostration while staying at the same place, then one prostration will be sufficient for him.
If a person recites a verse of prostration at a place, then changes his place and repeats recitation of the same verse, then two prostrations of recitation will be compulsory for him.
Change of place occurs when a person moves from one place to another.
Different portions of a room are considered de jure as a single place, no matter whether the room is small or large.
Different portions of a mosque are considered de jure as a single place, no matter whether the mosque is small or large.
If the place of a listener changes repeatedly, he will have to perform the prostration for each instance of recitation of the verse, no matter whether the place of the reciter changed or not.
It is detestable to recite a Quränic chapter containing a verse of recitation and skip the verse of recitation.
If a listener is not in a position to perform prostration, then it is desirable for the reciter to recite the verse of prostration inaudibly.
The person should stand/sit up and go down for a single prostration saying Takbïr and lay his forehead on the floor. Then he should raise his forehead from the prostration saying Takbïr again. He should not raise his hands while saying Takbïrs, nor recite At Tahiyyät, nor perform the ending Saläm after completing the prostration.
There is only one essential part of prostration of recitation: placing the forehead on the floor, or an act which is de jure equivalent to it, like bowing or gesture for a sick person.
The two Takbïrs preceding and succeeding the prostration are traditions.
It is desirable to stand up for performing the prostration of recitation.
The prerequisites for validity of prostration of recitation are same as those for Saläh. The only exception is the prohibitive words of Saläh which is a prerequisite in Saläh but not so in prostration of recitation.
Prostration of recitation is compulsory for 14 verses of the holy Qurän:
Al Isrä / Banü Isräïl
Alif Läm Mïm As Sajdah
Hä Mïm As Sajdah / Fussilat
 Sufficiency tradition means that if a few persons perform it, all the other people of the locality will be saved from the sin of missing this tradition. If all miss it, then each eligible person in the locality will share the sin. (Al Mabsüt by Muhammad bin Ahmad As Sarakhsi 30/262).
 In Shari'ah, night is considered to begin from sunset and end at dawn.
 Qurän 4:101
 Bukhärï 1081, Muslim 693, EQ 1028
 It amounts to about 89 km or, to be exact, 88.704 km. (Al Fiqh-ul Islämï wa Adillatuh 2/477)
 Travel or journey in Shari'ah: is the journey in which a person goes out of his city or village of residence with the intention of reaching a place at a distance of 88.704 km or more. If a person wanders around without the intention of reaching a specific place and traverses the entire world in the process, then he remains a resident and he should perform complete Salähs. (Al Mausüàt-ul Fiqhiyyat-ul Kuwaitiyyah 27/266)
 Equivalent to about 89 km.
 Yard means the places set apart for the needs of the city like burying the dead, grazing cattle, playing games, etc.
 Jihäd is fighting with the purpose of exalting Alläh's dïn.
 At the end of the first two units.
 Without the intention of residing for fifteen days or more.
 Principal residence is the city or village where a person stays with his wives and children – irrespective of whether it is his place of birth or not ¬– and he intends to live there permanently, not to migrate from there. (Al Mausüàt-ul Fiqhiyyat-ul Kuwaitiyyah 27/266)
The city or village of permanent residence of a man's wives is also treated as his principal residence. (Al Mausüàt-ul Fiqhiyyat-ul Kuwaitiyyah 27/267)
Thus, if a man has wives in two cities, then on entering either of the two, he will at once become a resident and so
he will not shorten his Saläh. (Al Mausüàt-ul Fiqhiyyat-ul Kuwaitiyyah 44/57)
Principal residence can be one or more. If a person has wives and homes in two cities or villages and his wives do not intend to migrate from there, then he will have two principal residences. (Al Mausüàt-ul Fiqhiyyat-ul Kuwaitiyyah 27/267)
 Principal residence is invalidated only when the person migrates forever to a new principal residence. A temporary residence does not invalidate his principal residence. If a person migrates to a new city or village making it his principal residence, taking with him his wive(s) and children and leaving forever his old principal residence, then the first place no more remains his principal residence. If he comes back here as a traveler he will perform two Saläh-units instead of four. (Al Mausüàt-ul Fiqhiyyat-ul Kuwaitiyyah 27/267)
 Bukhärï 1117, EQ 1059
 = 1/2 sä' of wheat or its market-price, or one sä' of barley or its market-price.
 Recitation in addition to Fätihah.
 In case there is no loud speaker and the congregation is so large that the Imäm’s voice does not reach the last rows, then it may happen that the Imäm recites a verse of recitation which the Imäm-followers in the last rows do not hear.
 Saying اَللهُ أكْبَر (Allähu Akbar) which means Alläh is the greatest.